BRIEF OUTLINE OF MAJOR MEDICINAL PLANTS

 

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BRIEF OUTLINE OF MAJOR MEDICINAL PLANTS

A brief outline of major medicinal plants, giving preferred media,

strengths, common dosage ranges, possible side effects, and ecologic status.

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

I - CHANGES AND ADDITIONS (lines 18-70)

II - FORMAT EXPLANATION (lines 75-139)

III - MATERIA MEDICA (lines 142-1866)

IV - OUTLINE OF PREPARATION METHODS (lines 1869-1985)

V - INDEX of ALTERNATE NAMES (lines 1988-2608)

 

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CHANGES AND ADDITIONS

(1) I added 42 botanicals...some are new and "sexy" herbs that have reached

the market in whole crude plant form (such as Uncaria and Pygeum) and can now

be dealt with as "herbs" rather than European phytopharmaceuticals, re-

packaged for "Health Food Stores"...some are plants I have become familiar

with or have reliable first hand information from friends abroad.

(2) I have added a new format category that deals with the ecologic status

of the herbs listed herein. Most folks using or prescribing herbs have little

awareness regarding the relative frequency or scarcety of plants as found

in the Real World...whether wildcrafted, cultivated, whatever. Some widely

used plants are tottering on the brink of near-extinction...Hydrastis (Golden

Seal), Helonias (Chamaelirium), Harpagophytum (Devil's Claw)...to name a

few...and those of us who use plants should be as aware as possible of

such factors.

The largest axe that I grind in my work is the desire to make herb-users

aware that herbs don't mysteriously materialize in capsules, they don't

substantiate spontaneously in pound or kilo bags delivered at one's home or

place of business...and there is often no reason to believe that the maker

of an extract or tincture has any better idea of the source than YOU do.

Any one that has grown Garden Sage or Summer Savory will haughtily turn up

their noses at the junk in the can or jar at the market...drab, grey, lifeless.

Others grow their own tomatoes and scorn the picked-too-early, biologically

engineered tomatoes of commerce...they KNOW the good stuff. The same should

be true of plant medicines. Offering manuals, photographs, and REAL TIME

information about herbs is my attempt to help serious herb users to, slowly,

gradually, start to view botanical medicines in the same way they view their

produce and dairy products...the closer to the source, the better the quality.

MAKE YOUR OWN MEDICINES...at least once, okay? At least you can bring some

personal knowledge to bear upon the next purchase of herbal preparations made

by someone else...buy with experience, not because of packaging, obscure

claims of excellence, or extensive ad campaigns. A good shopper at the

Green Grocers should know the qualities that signify good produce. The

users of herbs should accumulate similar knowledge...and I hope my work

can aid in that process. (end of tirade)

(3) I have also expanded annotations, asides and warnings for many plants.

If you find any errors or feel you have strong disagreements, please let

me know.  I am always pleasantly

surprised at how MANY folks find these clinical manuals useful...especially

the Herbal Materia Medica. Familiarity does not breed contempt on my part,

but it DOES breed blindness. Editors plow gleefully into my books, taking

out smarmy jokes, curses, and awkward syntax...but they have to leave the

editing of technical stuff to the author...me. Such manuals as this,

however, are nearly pure "technical"...and I don't have the advantage of

"peer revue"...I apparently know more about this type of shit than anybody

else I know of, so I am left proofing my own work (not generally advisable).

If you find recommendations that seem askew, PLEASE let me know. We may

simply disagree, or I may have made a typographical error. No matter how

MANY times I teach from these manuals, I still find simple typos that I

have looked at twenty times, each time seeing what I MEANT to write, rather

than what I ACTUALLY wrote.

 

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FORMAT EXPLANATION

(*)LATIN NAME. These plants are not appropriate in pregnancy, either because

of their effect on the uterus or the hypothalamus/pituitary axis, their toxic

potential, or my own conservative attitude about herbs in pregnancy.

Several plants, such as Podophyllum, may actually cause birth defects.

LATIN NAME. This is the primary listing, and reflects a combination of extant,

older pharmaceutical, and recent Latin. Leptandra is Veronicastrum in current

botany, but the first name still is widely used by herbalists and is how I

list it here. Many plants are listed simply by genus (such as Arnica) because

I feel so many species are the equivalent of the official one or a genus is

so singular that I only use one name to define them. Others are carefully

specified by species because of distinctly different aspects between them.

Tarragon and Sagebrush are both Artemisias but I would hate to taste Sagebrush

Chicken.

OTHER NAMES. Other Latin and common names, indexed at the end.

PARTS USED. These are listed in UPPER CASE. The herb is presumed to be used

dry. All fresh plant uses are specified. An Infusion or Decoction is always

presumed to be from a dry botanical.

PREFERENCES. Under each plant part, I list each method of use in the

descending order of their value. Some herbs are better used as an infusion,

and I list that first. I list fresh tincture ahead of dry tinctures most of

the time (if both forms are appropriate for the herb) based on my own

experience, although they may not always be available in commerce. My

preferences also tilt towards those methods of using herbs that makes the

greatest use of the least amount of plant mass. I have gathered many of these

plants and have developed preferences about their use. When you have picked

or grown your herbs, you quickly learn how to get the most from the least.

Some botanicals are only available in commerce, and I rely on the many sources

for extraction principles: older Pharmacopaeas, Formularies and Dispensatories.

For plants never listed, their constituents usually give clear indications for

solubilities and media. Whenever in doubt, I have followed personal

inclinations or the observations of the best plant pharmacist of the modern

era, John Uri Lloyd.

DOSAGE: These are all given for ADULTS; give kids simple stuff.

Be conservative with older folks, the chronically ill, and nursing mothers.

Always honor the basic premise of using herbal medicines; they work best on

acute self-limiting problems and subacute or sub-clinical disease. I have

also been free with warnings, contra-indications and observations. I have

used and picked most of these plants and when I haven't, I have gone by the

book.

STATUS OF PLANT: Since many plants are under environmental or gathering

stress, I have added this to the format. I have tried to view this globally.

Bear in mind that even such a widely dispersed genus as Arnica will have some

species or varieties that are endangered, even though as a genus it is VERY

abundant.

W/A (wildcrafted and abundant)

W/LA (wildcrafted and locally abundant in one biosphere or global area)

W/Rare (wildcrafted or poached and rare; use alternatives when possible)

W/C (wildcrafted and cultivated)

C (cultivated), and finally

U (unknown...at least to me)

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MATERIA MEDICA

ABIES (Tsuga canadensis, Canada Balsam, Hemlock Spruce)

BARK. EXTERNAL: Weak Decoction. INTERNAL: Weak Decoction, 1-3 fluidounces.

Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops. Essential Oil, 2-5 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

ACACIA GREGGII (Catclaw Acacia)

PODS/LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 fluid ounces

STATUS : W/LA

ACACIA SENEGAL (Gum Arabic)

One Tablespoon dissolved in 4 oz. water, flavored w/vanilla, cinnamon, etc.

Gum Arabic Mucilage, 1-2 teaspoons as needed.

STATUS : W/A

ACHILLEA (Yarrow, Milfoil, Plumajillo)

WHOLE FLOWERING PLANT. Tincture [FRESH 1:2, DRY 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10 to 40

drops. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture, topical to gums as needed.

STATUS : W/A

*ACHLYS (Vanilla Leaf)

WHOLE LEAF. A simple steeped tea for occasional use only.

A potential anti-coagulant (coumarin-containing).

STATUS : W/LA

*ACONITUM COLUMBIANUM (Aconite, Western Monkshood)

FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Herb Tincture, 1:4, topical in moderation, internal

1-5 drops to 4X a day.

DRIED ROOT. Tincture [1:10, 70% alcohol]

FOR TOPICAL USE ONLY. DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES.

STATUS : W/LA

*ACONITUM CARMICHAELI (CURED) (Fu-tse, Fo-tzu)

CURED CHINESE ROOT-SLICES. 1/4 to 1 slice, eaten or boiled, to 2X a day.

DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES.

STATUS : C

ACORUS CALAMUS (Calamus, Sweet Flag)

RHIZOME/ROOT. Tincture [FRESH 1:2,DRY 1:5,60% alcohol], 15-45 drops, to 4X

a day. The dried leaves make a tasty simple tea.

STATUS : W/C

*ACTEA RUBRA (A. arguta, Baneberry)

ROOT. Fresh or Dry Tincture, [1:2, or 1:5, 80% alcohol] 10-20 drops to 3X

a day.

STATUS : W/A

ADIANTUM (Maidenhair Fern)

DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-3 fluid ounces; 8 ounces as hair rinse.

STATUS : W/LA

*ADONIS VERNALIS (Pheasant's Eye)

RECENT DRIED HERB. 1-2 GRAINS to 4 X a day. In reality, it presents little

advantage over pharmaceutical preparations of Digitalis or Strophanthus.

USE WITH CARE, AND NOT CONCURRENT W/OTHER DRUGS

STATUS : W/LA

*AESCULUS CALIFORNICA (California Buckeye)

BARK and FRUIT. Same as Aesculus glabra.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/LA

*AESCULUS GLABRA (Ohio Buckeye)

BARK and FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-15 drops.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/LA

*AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM (Horse Chestnut)

BARK and FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-10 drops.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/A

AGAR AGAR. Powdered or flaked refined mucilage from several seaweeds.

Infusion, 1/2 to 2 tablespoons in water or fruit juice.

AGAVE (Century Plant, Maguey, American or False Aloe, Lechuguillla)

Tincture [Fresh Leaf, 1:2, Dried Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, to 4X

a day. The fresh leaf can induce a rash in some folks; test on arm first.

STATUS : W/C

AGRIMONIA (Agrimony)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, or Fresh

Plant, 1:2], 1/4 to 1 teaspoon as needed.

STATUS : W/A

AGROPYRON REPENS (Triticum repens, Couchgrass)

RHIZOME/STEMS. Cold Infusion, 2-4 fl. oz. Tincture [ 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60

drops to 5X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 50% alcohol] 10-30 drops to 5X a day

STATUS : W/A

AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (Tree of Heaven)

BARK, FRUIT. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces, to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/A

ALCHEMILLA (Ladies Mantle)

WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion, as needed

STATUS : W/LA

ALETRIS FARINOSA (Star Grass. "True"(properly "False") Unicorn Root)

RHIZOME. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 3X a day. Cold Infusion,

1-3 ounces.

STATUS : W/Rare

ALLIUM SATIVUM (Garlic)

BULB. Fresh Juice, 1/4 to 1 teaspoon. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 15-40 drops.

STATUS : C

ALNUS SERRULATA (Tag Alder)

BARK, fresh or recent only. Strong Decoction, 1/2 to 2 tablespoons. Weak

Decoction for external use.

STATUS : W/LA

*ALOE (Aloes Socrotine, etc.)

DRIED JUICE. Capsules, a single #0 or #00. Tincture [ 1:10, 50% alcohol]

15-60 drops. Use with antispasmodic such as Acorus or Angelica.

STATUS : W/C

ALPINIA (Galangal)

DRIED ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 30-90 drops as needed. 1-2 #00

capsules to 3X a day.

STATUS : C

ALTHEA (Marshmallow or Hollyhock)

ROOT. Cold Infusion or Fresh Tincture [1:2] as needed

HERB. Cold Infusion as needed, or moistened for poultice.

STATUS : W/C

AMARANTHUS (Pigweed, Alegria)

WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/A

AMBROSIA (Ragweed, Bursage, Yerba del Sapo)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 20-40 drops, both

to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

AMMI MAJUS (Bishop's Weed)

DRIED SEEDS. 4-6 grams a day, suspended in water or in capsule.

STATUS : W/A

AMMI VISNAGA (Khella, Bishops's Weed)

SEEDS. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 60-120 drops to 4X a day.

Not advisable for extended use. Whole seed CVS uses are rather inferior to

the refined constituents, but quite adequate for smooth-muscle relaxation.

STATUS : W/C

*AMYGDALIS PERSICA (Peach Tree)

FRESH TWIGS. Cold Infusion, 1-2 oz. Tincture [1:2], 30-90 drops, both ad lib.

STATUS : C

*ANAGALLIS (Scarlet Pimpernel)

HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 5-15 drops.

Not for extended use.

STATUS : W/A

ANAPHALIS MARGARITACEA (Pearly Everlasting)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, as needed. Rubbed leaves mixed with hot

water for poultice.

STATUS : W/A

*ANEMONE HIRSUTISSIMA (Pulsatilla ludoviciana, Pasque Flower)

FRESH PLANT. Tincture [1:2] 3-10 drops, to 4X a day.

Use with care.

STATUS : W/LA

*ANEMONE TUBEROSA (Desert Anemone, Desert Pasque Flower)

Same as previous.

STATUS : W/LA

ANEMOPSIS (Yerba Mansa, Lizard Tail)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60 drops to

5X a day. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces similarly.

HERB. Standard or Cold Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

ANGELICA

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol) 30-60 drops, to

4X a day. Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces similarly.

SEED: Tincture (as previous), 10-30 drops, or several seeds chewed.

STATUS : W/C

*ANGELICA SINENSIS (Dong Quai, Tang Kwei)

CURED CHINESE OR KOREAN ROOT. Large slices, 1/16 to 1/8 a day,chewed and

swallowed.

Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-20 drops

Capsules, #0, 1 to 3 a day.

STATUS : W/C

ANISUM (Anise Seed)

SEED. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Spirit of Anise, 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon,

Oil of Anise, 1-5 drops, all as needed

STATUS : C

ANTENNARIA (Cat's Paw, Pussy Toes, Mountain Everlasting)

WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

ANTHEMIS NOBILIS (Roman Chamomile)

FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion (bitter tonic),Standard Infusion (diaphoretic),

both 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : C

APIUM (Celery)

SEED. Simple Infusion, 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of seeds in cup of hot water.

STATUS : C

*APOCYNUM CANNABINUM (Dogbane, Canada Hemp)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops, to 3X a day.

USE CAREFULLY!

STATUS : W/A

ARALIA HISPIDA or SPINOSA (Dwarf Elder, Hercules Club, Devil's Walkingstick)

ROOT or BARK. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-25 drops, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

ARALIA NUDICAULIS ("American Sarsaprilla")

ROOT. Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alc.] 15-30 drops, both

to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

ARALIA RACEMOSA [including A. californica] (Spikenard, California Spikenard)

ROOT.Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, Recent Dry Root,1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30 drops.

Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/LA

ARBUTUS (Madrone)

LEAVES. Same as Arctostaphylos spp.

STATUS : W/LA

ARCTIUM (Burdock)

ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Fluidextract [1:1, 60% alcohol] 15-30 drops.

Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops, all 3X a

day.

SEED. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-25 drops.

STATUS : W/C

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS (Uva Ursi, Manzanita, Bearberry)

LEAVES. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops in 8 oz. of water, to 3X a

day. Standard Infusion 3-4 ounces to 3X a day. For sitz bath, 8-12 ounces

Standard Infusion in warm water; sit in it morning and evening.

STATUS : W/LA

ARGEMONE (Prickly Poppy, Cardo Santo)

HERB. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

For short duration of use only.

STATUS : W/A

ARISAEMA (Jack-in-the-Pulpit)

CORM. Tincture [Fresh Corm, slightly wilted, 1:2, 50% alcohol] 2-10 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

*ARISTOLOCHIA CALIFORNICA (California Snakeroot, Calif. Dutchman's Pipe

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 5-20 drops to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA (?)

*ARISTOLOCHIA SERPENTARIA (Virginia Snakeroot, Serpentaria)

ROOT and HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-20

drops to 3X a day.

For extended use, use only low doses, and within a formula.

STATUS : W/LA (?)

*ARISTOLOCHIA WATSONII (Indian Root, Raiz del Indio)

Same as previous, but safer for extended use, as is A. californica.

STATUS : W/LA

ARMORACIA (Cochlearia, Horseradish)

FRESH ROOT. Grated root, 1/2 to 1-1/2 tspn. (w/some honey if needed) STATUS : W/C

*ARNICA (A. montana, A. cordifolia, A. latiflora, etc.)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh plant, flower or root tincture [1:2], dry flowers or herb

tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] and dry root tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol].

EXTERNAL is diluted with one or two parts of water, applied as needed.

INTERNAL use 3-10 drops.

TAKE INTERNALLY WITH CARE

STATUS : W/C

*ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM (Wormwood)

HERB. Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

*ARTEMISIA TRIDENTATA (Sagebrush)

HERB. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

*ARTEMISIA VULGARIS (Mugwort, California Mugwort)

HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alc.] 10-25 drops;

Acetum Tincture [1:5, in vinegar] as needed externally.

Standard Infusion (drunk hot) for diaphoretic, Cold Infusion as tonic.

STATUS : W/C

ASAFETIDA (Ferula asafetida,Devil's Dung, Stinkasant)

GUM. Tincture [1:5, 85% alcohol] 5-20 drops.

STATUS : W(rare)/C

ASARUM (Wild Ginger, Canada Snakeroot)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-50 drops in

hot water.

HERB. Standard Infusion or simple tea as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

*ASCLEPIAS ASPERULA (Inmortal, Antelope Horns, Spider Milkweed)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol] 5-30 drops, Capsules, #00, 1-2, to 3X a day

STATUS : W/LA

*ASCLEPIAS CORNUTA (Common Milkweed)

ROOT. Same as above.

STATUS : W/A

*ASCLEPIAS INCARNATA (Swamp Milkweed)

ROOT. Same as above.

STATUS : W/A

*ASCLEPIAS SUBULATA (Desert Milkweed)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-20 drops in hot water, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA (Pleurisy Root)

ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol]

30-90 drops. Capsules, #00, 1-3, all to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

ASPARAGUS OFFICINALE

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol],30-60 drops in water,

3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*ASPIDIUM (Dryopteris filix-mas, Male Fern)

OLEORESIN, ROOT. Oleoresin in capsules, 2 grams; powdered root in capsules

10-15 grams. Prepare with epsom salt purgative in the evening, take capsules

in morning, have a light lunch, and another purgative in evening.

WARNING: Consume no oils, fats or alcohol the day the capsules are taken,and

the light lunch should contain NO fatty foods.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : U

ASPIDOSPERMA (Quebrache Bark)

BARK. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

ASTRAGALUS MEMBRANACEUS (Huang-Chi)

SLICED ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 55%

alcohol] 10-15 drops to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60 drops,

4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

AVENA (A. sativa, A. fatua, Oats, Wild Oats.)

UNRIPE FRESH SEED, w/"Milky" center. Fresh Tincture [1:2], 10-20 drops, to

4X a day.

STRAW (dry but green stems). Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

BALSAM OF PERU (Myroxylum pereirae, Peruvian Balsam)

RESIN (Dark Brown, syrupy).

EXTERNAL: Mix one part balsam with two parts of lanolin or lard.

INTERNAL: 5-10 drops in capsule, taken with a little food.

STATUS : U

BALSAM OF TOLU. (Myroxylum toluiferum)

RESIN. (Light Brown, syrupy, aromatic). TINCTURE: One part resin in five of

ethanol; take in 15-30 drop doses or add to some boiling water for steam

inhalation.

STATUS : U

BALSAMORHIZA (Balsam Root)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol], 20-50 drops in

hot.water, to 4X a day.

LEAVES. Powdered, with water as poultice.

STATUS : W/LA

BAPTISIA (Wild Indigo Root)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol],

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Tincture [1:2], both taken 10-25 drops, to 3X a day.

USE WITH CARE; better long term in formulas

STATUS : W/A

BAROSMA (Agothasma, Buchu)

LEAVES. Cold Infusion (rewarmed) 1-3 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol],

30-60 drops in water. Both forms to 4X a day.

STATUS : U

BERBERIS VULGARIS (Common Barberry)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-60 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces.

Capsules, #00, 1-3. All to 3X a day. See MAHONIA (Oregon Grape) as well.

STATUS : W/A

BETULA (Birch)

BARK. Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces, to 4X a day; external wash.

LEAVES. Standard Infusion as bath or wash, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

BIDENS (Tickseed, Spanish Needles, Te de Coral)

HERB. Cold or Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.Tincture [Fresh,1:2, Dry, 1:5,

50% alcohol] 45-90 drops.

STATUS : W/A

BRICKELLIA (Prodigiosa, Hamula)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 2X a day. Tincture [1:5, 50%

alcohol], 30-60 drops to 3X a day. Use the infusion for Type II diabetes,

tincture as tonic.

STATUS : W/LA

*BRYONIA (Bryony)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, recent Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 2-10

drops to 3X a day.

USE WITH CARE; better in small, frequent doses.

STATUS : W/LA

BURSERA MICROPHYLLA (Elephant Tree, Torote)

GUM. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol], 5-20 drops, and diluted for mouth wash.

TWIGS/LEAVES. Fresh plant tincture [1:2], 10-30 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

*CACALIA DECOMPOSITA (Odontotrichum decompositum, Maturin, Maturique)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol), 15-30 drops.

Usually for acute hyperglycemic episodes; I wouldn't advise extended use.

STATUS : W/LA (?)

CAFFEA ARABICA (Coffee)

ROASTED BEANS. Black, freshly brewed or cold infusion, 4-12 ounces.

STATUS : (gimme a break!!)

CALENDULA OFFICINALIS (European Marigold)

FLOWERS. Tincture [Fresh Flowers, 1:2, Dry Flowers, 1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-30

drops, to 4X a day. Dilute with several parts of water for topical use.

STATUS : W/C

CAMPSIS RADICANS (Trumpet Creeper)

HERB. Cold or Standard Infusion as needed externally, 1-3 ounces internally.

STATUS : W/C

CANNABIS SATIVA (Marijuana, Hemp)

FLOWERING TOPS.Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-30

drops. Smokers need higher dose.

ILLEGAL TO POSSESS AT PRESENT.

STATUS : W/LA/C

*CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS (Shepherd's Purse)

WHOLE PLANT. Tincture (Fresh Plant, 1:2, recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol]

20-60 drops.

STATUS : W/A

CAPSICUM (Cayenne, African Bird Peppers)

FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops. Capsules, #0, 1-2.

STATUS : W/C

CARDAMOMUM (Cardamom Seeds)

SEEDS. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-10 drops...or chew a couple seeds,

already.

STATUS : W/LA/C

CARTHAMUS TINCTORIA (Safflower, American, Mexican or Bastard "Saffron")

FLOWERS. Standard Infusion 4-8 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

CARUM (Caraway Seed)

SEED. Spirit of Caraway (1 part essential oil, 10 parts ethanol) 10-20 drops

in water, or some chewed seeds or simple tea for indigestion.

STATUS : W/C

CARYOPHYLLUS (Cloves)

UNRIPE BUDS. Essential Oil: 1:4 drops in capsule, taken with food. A piece

of oil-moistened cotton on or in a tooth, avoiding gums if possible.

STATUS : C

*CASSIA MARILANDICA (American Senna)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 3/4 Senna, 1/4 Coriander Seed (antispasmodic),

4-8 ounces. Take in evening for morning effect.

STATUS : W/LA

CASTANEA (Chestnut)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

CASTELA EMORYI (Holacantha emoryi, Chaparro Amargosa)

"HERB". Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-50 drops

(as anti-microbial), 5-10 drops (as bitter tonic).

STATUS : W/LA

*CAULOPHYLLUM (Blue Cohosh)

RHIZOME / ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 5-20 drops, usually in formula

context.

STATUS : W/LA

CEANOTHUS (Red Root, New Jersey Tea)

ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5,

50% alcohol] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

CENTAURIUM (Erythraea, Centaury)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 10-20 drops before meals.

Cold Infusion 1-2 ounces, also before meals.

STATUS : W/LA

CENTELLA ASIATICA (Hydrocotyle asiatica, Gotu Kola, Brahmi)

HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 15-30 drops to 3X a day. Standard Infusion

1-2 ounces. Dry Herb Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-40 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA/C

CENTHRANTUS RUBER (Red Valerian)

SAME AS Valeriana

STATUS : W/C

CEPHALANTHUS (Button Bush)

BARK/TWIGS. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30

drops, to 3X a day.

Best for short term use.

STATUS : W/A

CERCOCARPUS (Mountain Mahogany, Ponil)

TWIGS and STEMS. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

CEREUS GRANDIFLORUS (Selenicereus, Peniocereus, Night-Blooming Cereus)

FRESH STEMS. Fresh Tincture [1:2], 5-15 drops (Selenicereus spp.);

10-25 drops, (Peniocereus greggii).

Either one to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

CETRARIA (Iceland Moss)

DRY SEAWEED. 2-4 grams boiled in 8 oz. of fruit juice, drunk WARM.

STATUS : W/semiC

CHAMAELIRIUM (Helonias, Unicorn Root )

RHIZOME and ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-40 drops.

Best in lower doses in a formula context.

STATUS : W/Rare

CHELIDONIUM (Greater Celandine)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2] 10-25 drops. Alone, for short term

use; safe for extended use as a low dose formula constituent.

STATUS : W/A

CHELONE (Balmony, Turtlehead)

HERB. Tincture [fresh plant, 1:2], 10-20 drops to 3X a day.

Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

Dry Plant Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-60 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*CHENOPODIUM (Epazote, Wormseed)

SEEDS. As Vermifuge: take laxative in evening, fast twelve hours the

following day, take 2 grams of seeds [3 or 4 #00 capsules] with a soothing

tea, such as Althea or Ulmus, wait 2 hours and follow with a full dose of

Castor Oil.

HERB: As Emmenagogue: Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces.

USE BOTH SEEDS and HERB WITH CARE.

The herb, used to spice beans, is perfectly safe.

STATUS : W/C

CHILOPSIS LINEARIS (Desert Willow, Mimbre)

BARK and TWIGS. Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 3X a day,

WHOLE PLANT. The powder for topical application.

STATUS : W/LA

CHIMAPHILA (Pipsissewa, Prince's Pine)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol), 20-50 drops,

to 4X a day. Standard Infusion 4-8 ounces.

STATUS : W/LA

CHIONANTHUS (Fringetree)

BARK. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Bark, 1:2, Dry Bark, 1:5,

65% alcohol] 30-60 drops.

LEAF. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/LA

CHOROGALUM (Amole Lily)

FRESH BULB. Grate 2-4 tablespoons in cheesecloth, rub into a froth in a cup,

of water, and wash or shampoo.

STATUS : W/LA

CHLOROPHYLLIN (Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin, Chlorophyl "JJ")

1 scant teaspoon in a gallon of water, 2-6 ounces to 3X a day.

WARNING: this will color feces a festive green.

STATUS : C

CHRYSANTHEMUM PARTHENIUM (Tanacetum , Pyrethrum, Feverfew)

HERB. Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry herb, 1:5,

50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

CICHORIUM (Chicory)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 3-6 ounces, up to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA (Macrotys, Black Cohosh)

RHIZOME/ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 80% alcohol], 10-25

drops. Capsules, #00, 1-2, both to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*CINCHONA (Peruvian Bark, Quinine Bark)

BARK. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/C

CINERARIA (Senecio cineraria, Dusty Miller)

Sterile Juice, as a pharmaceutical preparation from a homeopathic supplier

or as a prescription preparation from Walker Pharmacals, St. Louis, MO.

STATUS : W/C

CINNAMOMUM (Cinnamon, Canela)

BARK. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol, 5% glycerin]

20-50 drops, both to 4X a day.

ESSENTIAL OIL. 2-5 drops in capsule.

STATUS : W/LA/C

CISTUS (Helianthemum, Rock Rose)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] diluted for topical use with

two to four parts of water.

STATUS : W/A

CLEMATIS (Virgin's Bower)

RECENT HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, to 2X a day. Tincture [1:5, 50%

alcohol] 10-40 drops, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

CNICUS BENEDICTUS (Blessed or Holy Thistle)

FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion, 4-6 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry

Herb, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-40 drops in hot water, both to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

COLA NITIDA (Kola Nut)

SEED. Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

COLLINSONIA (Stone Root, Horse Balm)

ROOT and HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2] 20-40 drops to 3X a day.

Tincture [Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 45-60 drops to 4X a day (inferior).

STATUS : W/LA

COMMIPHORA (Myrrh Gum)

RESIN. Tincture [ 1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops. Capsules, #0, 1-2, both to

3X a day. Topically, dilute tincture with water as needed.

STATUS : U

CONDALIA (Lotebush, Tecomblate)

ROOT AND BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day, as needed when used

topically

STATUS : W/LA

*CONVALLARIA (Lily of the Valley)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, recent Dry Root,1:5,65% alcohol] 5-20 drops.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/LA

COPAIFERA (Copaiba)

ESSENTIAL OIL. 5-10 drops in capsule, taken with food. Topically, dilute

with three parts of ethanol before applying.

STATUS : U

COPTIS (Gold Thread)

ROOT/HERB. Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60

drops, to 3X a day. Topically as needed, either diluted, or Strong Decoction

STATUS : W/C

CORALLORHIZA (Coral Root, Crawley)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops in

hot water. Cold Infusion 3-6 ounces, reheated.

STATUS : W/LA

CORIANDRUM (Coriander, Cilantro)

SEED. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-20 drops. Seeds chewed as needed.

STATUS : C

CORNUS (Dogwood, Red Osier, Bunchberry)

ROOT, STEM, BARK. Cold or Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

*CORYDALIS AUREUS (Golden Smoke)

HERB. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol] 10-40 drops; small, frequent doses are best.

STATUS : W/A

*CORYNANTHE (Pausinystalia Johimbe, Yohimbe)

BARK. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-30 drops.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : U

CRATAEGUS (Hawthorn)

BERRIES, FLOWERING BRANCHES. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Berries, 1:5,

60% alcohol] 10-30 drops, to 3X a day.

Cold Infusion (berries) 1-2 ounces, to 2X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*CROCUS (True Saffron)

STIGMAS. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops.

STATUS : C

CUBEBA (Piper cubeba, Cubeb Berries)

UNRIPE FRUIT. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol] 10-30 drops. Capsules, #00, 1-3.

To 3X a day, for up to a week.

STATUS : W/LA/C

CUPRESSUS (Cypress)

GREEN FOLIAGE. EXTERNAL: Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2] straight, or diluted

with two parts water.

INTERNAL: Standard Infusion [lightly roasted twigs], 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

CURCUMA (Turmeric)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 10-30 drops. 1 teaspoon of powder

suspended in water. Colors mouth a disturbing yellow.

STATUS : C

*CUSCUTA (Dodder)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, for short duration use.

STATUS : C (...a little joke...)

CYMOPTERUS FENDLERI (Chimaja)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. SEEDS chewed as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

CYNARA (Artichoke)

HERB IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol]

30-90 drops, either to 3X a day.

STATUS : C

CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICINALIS (Hound's Tongue)

HERB (in summer) ROOT (in fall). Standard Infusion,1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

For short term use; may irritate liver if used excessively.

STATUS : W/A

CYPRIPEDIUM (Lady Slipper Orchid)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-90 drops, to 3X a day.

PLANT IS RARE IN MOST AREAS (and things are not getting any better).

Use other medicines whenever possible, such as Epipactis or Valeriana

STATUS : W/Rare!!

*DATURA (Jimson Weed, Stramonium, Thorn Apple)

LEAVES. Tincture [1:10, 60% alcohol] 3-10 drops to 3X a day.

Leaf mixed w/Tussilago and smoked for incipient asthma.

DANGEROUS IN MODERATE DOSES.

STATUS : W/A

*DAUCUS CAROTA (Carrot, Wild Carrot)

SEED. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60

drops, both to 2X a day.

STATUS : W/A

DELPHINIUM (Larkspur, Delphinium, Stavesacre)

RIPE SEEDS. Tincture [1:2, 95% alcohol], diluted in two or three parts of

water for topical use.

STATUS : W/A

DICENTRA CANADENSIS (Turkey Corn)

CORM. Cold Infusion 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day. Best used in formulas.

STATUS : W/LA

DICENTRA FORMOSA (Bleeding Heart)

ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture [1:2], 10-20 drops or applied topically.

Dry Root Tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops.

HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 25-50 drops, all to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

DIOSCOREA VILLOSA (Wild Yam)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh ROOT, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-100 drops,

to 4X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 55% alcohol] 10-25 drops.

Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

DIPSACUS (Teasel)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

DRACONTIUM (Symplocarpus, Skunk Cabbage)

RHIZOME AND ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol],

20-60 drops.

STATUS : W/A

DROSERA (Sundew)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2], 5-15 drops to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

ECHINACEA ANGUSTIFOLIA ,E.PALLIDA (Ks. Snakeroot, Purple Coneflower)

ROOT and FLOWERS. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 70% alcohol],

30-100 drops as needed. Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces, all to 5X a day.

Fluidextract [1:1, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops.

STATUS : W/LA/C

ECHINACEA PURPUREA (Missouri Snakeroot, Purple Coneflower)

ROOT/FLOWERS. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 30-100 drops. Dry Plant Tincture

1-2 teaspoons to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/LA/C

ELEUTHEROCOCCUS (Acanthopanax, Siberian Ginseng)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 20-60 drops. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces,

both to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA/C

ENCELIA FARINOSA (Incienso, Brittlebush

LEAVES AND STEMS. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

EPHEDRA VIRIDIS (Mormon Tea, American Ephedra, Canutillo)

HERB. Standard Infusion, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

EPHEDRA VULGARIS (Ma Huang, Chinese Ephedra)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 2X a day. Unlike the previous, this

type contains the alkaloid Ephedrine and should be used in moderation.

STATUS : W/semiC

EPIGEA (Trailing Arbutus)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

EPIPACTIS GIGANTEA (Stream Orchid, "Helleborine")

WHOLE PLANT. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90

drops. An equivalent to the far rarer Cypripedium.

STATUS : W/LA

EPILOBIUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM (Chamaenerium, Fireweed, Giant Willow-Herb)

HERB IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/A

EQUISETUM ARVENSE (Horsetail)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, topically as hair rinse. Use only herbs

gathered upstream...inorganic fertilizer runoff alters the chemistry.

STATUS : W/A

EQUISETUM HYEMALE (Scouring Rush)

HERB. Standard Infusion for external use.]

STATUS : W/A

ERECHTITES (Fireweed)

ESSENTIAL OIL. 5-10 drops in capsule, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

EREMOCARPUS (Turkey Mullein)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces, or 8 ounces in bathwater.

STATUS : W/LA

ERIGERON CANADENSE (Conyza canadensis, Canadian Fleabane)

RECENT FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

ERIODICTYON (Yerba Santa)

LEAVES (from current year's growth). Tincture [Fresh Herb,1:2, Dry Herb,1:5,

75% alcohol] 20-30 drops, to 5X a day.

Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

ERIOGONUM (Buckwheat Bush)

FLOWERING TOPS. Standard Infusion, 2-8 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

ERODIUM (Storksbill, Alfilerillo)

HERB. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/A

ERYNGIUM YUCCAFOLIUM (Eryngo, Rattlesnake Master, Button Snakeroot)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture, 1:2, 15-30 drops in warm water.

ROOT. Weak Decoction, 4-8 ounces. Dry Root Tincture, [1:5, 60% alcohol],

20-40 drops, in cup of water. All forms to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

ESCHSCHOLTZIA CALIFORNICA (California Poppy)

FLOWERING PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2] 15-25 drops, to 3X a day. Dry

herb, Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

EUCALYPTUS

LEAVES.Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.

ESSENTIAL OIL,1-5 drops in capsule.

STATUS : W/C

*EUONYMUS (Wahoo, Burning Bush)

BARK. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-30 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces,

both to 2X a day.

Avoid prolonged use; Euonymus can irritate the liver.

STATUS : W/LA

EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM (Boneset)

FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 20-40 drops in hot water. Dry

herb, Cold Infusion (tonic), Standard Infusion (diaphoretic), 2-6 ounces,

to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

EUPATORIUM PURPUREUM (Gravel Root, Queen of the Meadow)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2,

Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops in cup of warm water.

STATUS : W/A

EUPHRASIA (Eyebright)

HERB. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-90 drops,

both to 4X a day.

STATUS : U

FILIPENDULA (Spiraea, Meadowsweet)

FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Tincture [1:2], 60-90 drops, Dry Tincture [1:5, 50%

alcohol], 90-120 drops, Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces all to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

FOENICULUM (Fennel Seed)

SEED. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60 drops in warm water as needed.

Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : C

*FOUQUIERIA SPLENDENS (Ocotillo)

FRESH BARK. Tincture, [1:2] 10-30 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

FRAGARIA (Strawberry)

HERB. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/C

*FRANGULA (Rhamnus frangula, Alder Buckthorn)

Capsules, #00, 1-3, taken with warm water at night.

STATUS : W/LA

FREMONTIA CALIFORNICA (Fremontodendron, California Slippery Elm)

BARK AND LEAVES. Cold or Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/LA (?)

FRAXINUS (Ash)

BARK. Cold or Standard infusion 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

FUCUS (Bladderwrack, seawrack)

WHOLE PLANT. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Capsules, #00, 1-2, both to 2X a day.

STATUS : W/C

FUMARIA (Fumitory)

DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5,50% alcohol], 45-90

drops.

STATUS : W/A

*GALEGA (Goat's Rue)

DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

GALIUM APARINE (Cleavers, Bedstraw)

WHOLE PLANT. Cold or Standard Infusion, as needed. Fresh Plant Tincture

[1:2] 1-2 teaspoons. Fresh plant juice, 1/2 to 1 teaspoon, all to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

*GARRYA (Silk Tassel, Cuauchichic, Quinine Bush)

LEAF. Tincture [Fresh leaf, 1:2, Dry Leaf, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 45-60 drops to

5X a day. Leaf, Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 4X a day.

ROOT BARK [Tincture, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-20 drops to 5X a day,

Use moderately, and NOT with other anti-cholinergics.

STATUS : W/LA

GAULTHERIA (Wintergreen)

ESSENTIAL OIL, INTERNALLY: 2-5 drops in capsule.

EXTERNALLY, diluted with four parts vegetable oil for liniment.

RECENT HERB. Standard Infusion in frequent 2-4 ounce doses.

STATUS : U

*GELSEMIUM (Yellow Jasmine)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:10, 65% alcohol] 2-10 drops.

DANGEROUS IN LARGER DOSES

STATUS : W/LA

GENTIANA (Gentian)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2,Dry Root,1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops before

each meal.

STATUS : W/A/C

GERANIUM (Cranesbill, Alum Root)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin] in 1/2 to 1 teaspoon doses.

Strong Decoction, 1-4 ounces, both to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

GEUM (Avens)

WHOLE PLANT IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

GINKGO BILOBA (Maidenhair Tree)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60

drops to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

GLECHOMA (Ground Ivy, Nepeta hederacea)

LEAVES. Fresh Plant Tincture (1:2), 5-15 drops as needed. Standard Infusion,

1-3 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

*GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA (Licorice)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-60 drops. Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces,

either to 3X a day. Can occasion sodium retention.

STATUS : C

*GLYCYRRHIZA LEPIDOTA (American Licorice)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day. Topically, the decoction as

an antimicrobial.

STATUS : W/A

GNAPHALIUM (Cudweed, Everlasting)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces to 3X a day. Topical, as needed

STATUS : W/A

*GOSSYPIUM (Cotton)

ROOT BARK. Fresh Bark Tincture, [1:2], 30-60 drops, to 3X a day. Recent Dry

Bark Tincture, [1:5, 50% alcohol] 1-2 teaspoons, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

GRANATUM (Punica granatum, Pomegranate)

ROOT BARK. Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day. For tapeworms, alkaloid

or prescription treatment is the only rational approach. The bark will

shrink membranes and inhibits tapeworms, but does NOT kill them.

STATUS : W/C

*GRATIOLA (Hedge Nettle, Hedge Hyssop)

ROOT/RHIZOMES. Tinctures (Fresh Root, [1:2], Dry Root [1:5, 65% alcohol]),

5-15 drops to 3X a day. Cold Infusion, 1-4 tablespoons similarly.

Do not use in acute, inflammatory conditions.

MAY BE TOXIC IN EXCESS

STATUS : W/LA

GRINDELIA (Gumweed, Yerba del Buey)

FLOWERING TOPS. Tincture (Fresh Herb, [1:2], Dry Herb, [1:5, 70% alcohol]),

15-40 drops to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/A

GUAIACUM ANGUSTIFOLIA (Porlieri, Guayacan)

BARK AND WOOD. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 10-25 drops in water, frequently.

As a gargle, one part tincture in four parts hot water.

STATUS : W/LA

GUAIACUM OFFICINALE (Lignum Vitae, Guaiac Wood)

BARK OR WOOD. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops in water, frequently.

As a gargle, the same as above.

STATUS : W/LA

GUTIERREZIA (Escoba de la Vibora)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 8-12 ounces in bathwater.

STATUS : W/A

HAEMATOXYLON (Logwood, Brazil)

HEARTWOOD. Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

HAMAMELIS (Witch Hazel)

TWIGS AND LEAVES. Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2] 10-60 drops as needed, and

diluted for topical use.

BARK. Servicable as Standard Decoction topically.

STATUS : W/C

HARPAGOPHYTUM PROCUMBENS (Devil's Claw)

TUBERS. Capsules, #0, 2-4 in evenings. Cold Infusion 4-6 ounces similarly.

Strong Tincture [1:2, 60% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoons. Some recommend that

two weeks on and two weeks off is the best approach to Devil's Claw. I have

found a month of continuous use is the best way to begin.

STATUS : W/Rare/Cult.(w/little success)

*HEDEOMA (American Pennyroyal, Poleo Chino)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant,1:2,Dry Plant (recent) 1:5,50% alcohol] 20-60

drops drops in hot water. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 5X a day.

ESSENTIAL OIL. diluted with vegetable oil or grain alcohol as an insect

repellent.

STATUS : W/C

HEDERA HELIX (Ivy)

LEAVES. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 15-30 drops as needed for for topical use.

GUM. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol] 5-15 drops.

It may be a topical irritant for a few individuals; test on inner wrist

first if prone to dermatitis.

STATUS : W/A

HELENIUM HOOPESII (Dugaldia, Yerba del Lobo, Orange Sneezeweed)

WHOLE PLANT. Tincture [Fresh plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alcohol] as a

counterirritant liniment.

STATUS : W/LA

HELIANTHEMUM (Cistus, Rock Rose, Frostwort)

FLOWERING TOPS. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alcohol],

30-90 drops. Cold Infusion as gargle, douche, topical poultice.

STATUS : W/A

HELIOPSIS LONGIPES (Raiz del Oro, Chilcuan)

ROOT. Piece of root chewed for gingivitis and periodontal disease. Chronic

overuse can cause intestinal irritation.

STATUS : W/LA

HEPATICA (Anemone hepatica, Liverwort)

HERB. Standard Infusion, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

HERACLEUM (Cow Parsnip, Yerba del Oso)

ROOT. Fresh Tincture [1:2] applied topically as nerve irritant/stimulant.

SEED. Fresh Seed Tincture [1:2] applied topically to teeth/gums as

anesthetic and antimicrobial

STATUS : W/A

HETEROTHECA (Camphor Weed, Mexican Arnica)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 60% alcohol) as

liniment, topically as antifungal. Standard Infusion as topical application,

or 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

HEUCHERA (American Alum Root)

ROOT AND LEAF. Tincture [Fresh Whole Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alc.,

10% glycerin] 30-90 drops. Cold Infusion (root, leaves, or both) 1-3 ounces

to 4X a day, or 4 ounces in 8 ounces warm water for douche or enema.

STATUS : W/LA

HUMULUS (Hops)

STROBILE. Tincture [Fresh strobiles, 1:2, Dry strobiles 1:5, 65% alcohol]

30-90 drops. Cold Infusion 2-4 ounces, Standard Infusion 3-6 ounces, to 3X

a day.

HERB. Cold or Standard Infusion for topical use, powder for poultice.

STATUS : W/C

HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS (Seven Barks)

ROOT. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 3-6 ounces, frequently. Tincture,

[Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in water, up

to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*HYDRASTIS (Golden Seal)

ROOT/LEAF. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 15-30 drops. Dry Root Tincture, [1:5,

70% alcohol] 20-50 drops. Dry Herb Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-75 drops

all the above to 4X a day. Dry Root capsules #00, 2-4, to 3X a day.

Standard Infusion of leaf 1-3 ounces, to 4X a day.

The root is only partially soluble in water and should not be wasted in tea.

STATUS: W/Rare (cultivation has largely failed in recent years, due to plant

blight and flooding; most of the world's Hydrastis is obtained by poaching

from isolated old-growth remnants in NE North America. Most remnant stands

will have disappeared forever by the time re-cultivation takes up the slack.

PLEASE use substitutes whenever possible.)

*HYOCYAMUS NIGER (Henbane)

FLOWERING TOP. Tincture [Fresh Herb, 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 3-10

drops to 3X a day. Standard Infusion topically for pain.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/A

HYPERICUM (St. Johns Wort)

FLOWERING TOPS. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2] 20-30 drops to 3X a day. The dry

plant is far less active, but a Standard Infusion can be taken, 3-6 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

HYPTIS (Desert Lavender)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

HYSSOPUS (Hyssop)

FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, or topically for bruises.

STATUS : W/C

ILEX PARAGUAENSIS (Yerba Mate)

LEAVES. A simple infusion as needed.

A CAFFEINE PLANT

STATUS : C

ILLICIUM (Star Anise)

SEEDS. Same as Cardamom. For a tea, Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, ad lib.

STATUS : C

IMPATIENS (Jewel Weed, Touch-Me-Not)

FRESH PLANT. Fresh juice for topical use, Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], both

as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

INULA (Elecampane)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol], 10-30 drops to

4X a day. Strong Decoction 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

IRIS FLORENTINA and others (Orris Root)

DRIED ROOT, preferably aged for at least 2 years. 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in warm

water as suspended tea; the pressed "fingers" for teething infants to gum on.

Although sometimes a topical allergen, it is not so internally.

STATUS : C

*IRIS VERSICOLOR, I. MISSOURIENSIS (Blue Flag)

RHIZOME. Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol], 5-20 drops to 3X a day.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/C

JATEORHIZA PALMATA (Columbo, Calumba)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 20-30 drops before meals. Cold Infusion,

1-2 ounces.

STATUS : U

JATROPHA CINERIA (J. cardiaca, Sangre de Drago, Limberbush)

ROOT. Strong Decoction or Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces, topically applied, or

as a mouthwash.

STATUS : W/LA

JEFFERSONIA (Twin Leaf, Rheumatism Root)

RHIZOME. Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

JUGLANS CINERIA (Butternut Bark)

BARK. Weak Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

JUGLANS MAJOR (Black Walnut)

LEAVES. Tincture (Fresh Plant [1:2] Dry Plant [1:5] 50% alcohol), 30-90

drops to 3X a day. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

JUNIPERUS (Juniper)

BERRIES. Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol], 20-40 drops. Standard Infusion, 2-3

oz., to 3X a day.

LEAVES: Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, or boiled for inhalation. For short

term use; may irritate the kidneys in time.

STATUS : W/semi-C

*KALMIA (Mountain Laurel)

LEAVES. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 3-10 drops. Dry Plant Tincture [1:5, 50%

alcohol] 5-20 drops, both to 4X a day.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/LA

KINO (Pterocarpus, Gum Kino)

GUM. Tincture [1:5,65% alcohol,15% glycerin],30 50 drops in water as needed.

STATUS : U

KRAMERIA (Rhatany)

WHOLE PLANT. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol, 10%

glycerin], 20-50 drops. Strong Decoction, 1-3 ounces, or used topically.

STATUS : W/A

LACTUCA (Wild Lettuce)

HERB. Standard Infusion as needed. LATEX (Lactucarium), Tincture [1:2, 95%

alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon.

STATUS : W/A

LARREA (Chaparral, Gobernadora, Creosote Bush)

LEAFING BRANCHES. Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol], 20-60 drops.

Capsules,#00, 2-4 a day.

Strong Decoction for topical use.

STATUS : W/A

LAVANDULA (Lavender)

FLOWERS. Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 4X a day.

ESSENTIAL OIL. 5-10 drops in capsule, with food.

STATUS : W/C

LEDUM (Labrador Tea)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion for tea. Fresh Leaf Tincture [1:2] is diluted for

topical use.

STATUS : W/A

*LEONURUS CARDIACA (Motherwort)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 60% alc.]

30-60 drops, to 4X a day. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

*LEPTANDRA (Veronicastrum, Culver's Root)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 10-30 drops,to 3X a day. An herb better

used in formulas than by itself.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/Rare

LESPEDEZA CAPITATA (Lespedeza)

FLOWERING HERB. Dry Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-60 drops to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

LEUCANTHEMUM (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Oxe-Eye Daisy)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

LEUCOPHYLLUM (Cenizo, Purple Sage, Texas Ranger)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces

STATUS : W/LA

LIATRIS (Button Snakeroot, Cachana, Gayfeather)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces frequently.

STATUS : W/A

LIGUSTICUM PORTERI (Osha, Chuchupate, Mountain Lovage)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 20-60 drops up

to 5X a day. Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces, as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

LIGUSTRUM (Privet)

BARK AND LEAVES. Strong Decoction, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

*LILIUM TIGRINUM (Tiger Lily)

WHOLE BLOOMING PLANT. Tincture [Fresh plant,1:2], 5-20 drops, up to 3X a day

USE IN MODERATION.

STATUS : U

LINARIA (Toadflax, Butter-and-Eggs)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 20-40 drops. Standard Infusion,

2-4 ounces. Capsules, #00, 1-2, all to 3X a day.

For short term use in full doses, long term use in low dosage formula format

STATUS : W/A

LINUM (Flaxseed)

SEEDS. Whole seeds, 1-2 teaspoons in cup of warm water, Ground seeds for a

poultice. Only use freshly ground whole seeds internally; even several days

is long enough to allow oxidative degradation, creating irritating lipids.

STATUS : C

LIQUIDAMBER (Sweet Gum Tree)

BALSAM. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol], 10-30 drops as needed. Strong Decoction

of Bark is serviceable as well.

STATUS : W/LA

LOBELIA CARDINALIS (Cardinal Flower)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2], 10-40 drops up to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

LOBELIA INFLATA (Lobelia, Indian Tobacco)

FLOWERING PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:4] 5-20 drops up to 4X a day.

Dry Plant Tincture (inferior) is best as an Acetum Tincture [Dry Herb 1:5 in

vinegar] 10-20 drops, or used for local application.

SEED. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol), 3-10 drops.

Herb tea is especially nauseating, fresh herb or seed preps only slightly.

STATUS : W/LA/C

LOMATIUM DISSECTUM (Leptotaenia, Biscuit Root)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 10-30 drops up

to 4X a day. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces also to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*LOPHOPHORA (Peyote, Mescal Buttons)

FRESH PLANT. Tincture [1:2], 20-40 drops to 4X a day.

ILLEGAL TO POSSESS AT PRESENT.

STATUS : W/Rare

LYCIUM PALLIDUM (Wolf Berry)

HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2], 15-40 drops. Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces

both up to 4X a day.

Best for short-term use.

STATUS : W/LA

LYCOPUS (Bugleweed, Water Horehound)

HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 15-40 drops, to 3X a day. Standard Infusion

of recent plant, 2-3 ounces, also to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

LYSICHITON AMERICANUM (Western Skunk Cabbage)

SAME as Dracontium.

STATUS : W/A

LYTHRUM (Loose-Strife)

FLOWERING PLANT. A Cold Infusion (astringent and slimy), Standard Infusion

(astringent) or Decoction (slimy) as needed, for pharynx, esophageal and

gastric irritation or as a douche.

STATUS : W/A

MAHONIA (Oregon Grape, Algerita)

SAME as Berberis.

STATUS : W/A

MALVA NEGLECTA (Mallow, Malvas, Cheeseplant)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

MARRUBIUM (Horehound)

FLOWERING HERB. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry

Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-90 drops, both to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

MATRICARIA (Chamomile, Manzanilla)

FLOWERS. Standard or Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/C

MATRICARIA MATRICARIOIDES (M. suaveolens, Pineapple Weed)

FLOWERS. Standard or Cold Infusion, 2-6 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/A

MEDICAGO SATIVA (Alfalfa)

FLOWERING PLANT. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/C

*MELILOTUS (Sweet Clover)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces; the tea for topical use.

Not for extended consumption as a tea, due to its coumarin content.

STATUS : W/A

MELISSA OFFICINALIS (Lemon Balm)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/C

MENISPERMUM (Yellow Parilla, Moonseed)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol], 10-40 drops, or 5-10 drops as a bitter

tonic, taken just before meals.

STATUS : W/LA

MENTHA AQUATICA (Water Mint)

Same uses as Mentha spicata

*MENTHA ARVENSIS (Brook Mint, Poleo)

HERB IN FLOWER. Standard Infusion as needed. Although less than found in

Hedeoma or Mentha pulegium, the pulegone content in this plant makes it

inappropriate in pregnancy.

STATUS : W/C

MENTHA PIPERITA (Peppermint)

HERB. Corld or Standard Infusion as needed.

ESSENTIAL OIL. 10-20 drops in capsules (in a binder), to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*MENTHA PULEGIUM (European Pennyroyal)

BASAL LEAVES and FLOWERING STALKS. Same as Hedeoma.

STATUS : W/C

MENTHA SPICATA (Spearmint, Yerba Buena)

HERB. Standard Infusion, or any way you want, as needed.

ESSENTIAL OIL. 10-20 drops in capsules (in a binder), to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

MENYANTHES (Buckbean, Bogbean)

WHOLE PLANT. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol],

10-30 drops, to 3X a day. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces, also to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

MIRABILIS MULTIFLORUM (Wild Four-O'Clock, Maravilla)

ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture [1:2], 30-60 drops. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces,

either form taken 1/2 hour before meals.

STATUS : W/LA

MITCHELLA REPENS (Squaw Vine)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol],1/2 to 1

teaspoon to 3X a day. Standard Infusion, 2-8 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

MONARDA (Bee Balm, Oswego Tea, Wild Bergamot, Wild Oregano)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day or as gargle.

STATUS : W/C

MYRICA (Bayberry)

BARK and ROOTBARK. Tincture [Fresh Bark, 1:2, Dry Bark, 1:5, 60% alcohol]

20-60 drops. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces, both to 3X a day. The diluted

tincture or the infusion for topical use or as a gargle.

STATUS : W/A

MYRISTICA (Nutmeg, Mace)

SEED. Tincture [1:5, 75% alcohol] 5-10 drops.

STATUS : C

NEPETA CATARIA (Catnip)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Recent Dry Herb 1:5, 50% alc.],

1/4 to 1 teaspoon Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, all to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

NICOTIANA (Tobacco)

HERB. Standard Infusion topically.

STATUS : W/C

*NUPHAR (Yellow Pond Lily)

ROOT/RHIZOME. Fresh Root Tincture, [1:2], 10-20 drops. Weak Decoction 2-4

ounces, both to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

NYMPHAEA ODORATA (White Pond Lily)

DRIED RHIZOME. Strong Decoction, 1-2 ounces to 4X a day (internally) or an

appropriate volume as a douche.

STATUS : W/LA

OENOTHERA (Evening Primrose)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. The seeds contain high levels

of GLA and tryptophane.

STATUS : W/C

OLEA EUROPAEA (Olive)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*OPLOPANAX HORRIDUM (Echinopanax, Devil's Club)

ROOT/ROOTBARK. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Rootbark, 1:5, 60% alc.] 10-40

drops. Cold Infusion, 1-3 ounces, all forms to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

OPUNTIA (Prickly Pear)

FRESH JUICE, 2-4 ounces to 2X a day.

DRIED FLOWERS, two-three as an infusion (strain VERY well).

STATUS : W/A

OROBANCHE and CONOPHOLIS (Broomrape)

WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces; applied topically as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

OSMORHIZA OCCIDENTALIS (Sweet Root, Western Sweet Cicely)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 65% alcohol] 45-60 drops to

3X a day. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

OXYDENDRON (Sourwood)

LEAVES. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*PAEONIA (Peony)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-25 drops up

to 4X a day. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Capsules, #00, 2-3 at a time.

STATUS : W/C

*PANAX GINSENG (Asian Ginseng)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol].

KIRIN (dark red Chinese cured root) 5-20 drops.

SHIU-CHIU (light red Chinese cured) 10-30 drops.

KOREAN RED, 5-15 drops.

WHITE (Chinese or Korean uncured) 20-40 drops, all to 3X a day.

Capsules, "Red Ginseng" (Kirin or Korean Red) to 4X a day. "White", to 6 a

day. Chewing root pieces is more reliable than the unidentifiable substances

found in capsules. With the cost of Ginseng, tinctures are the most

bioavailable form.

STATUS : C

*PANAX QUINQUEFOLIUM (American Ginseng)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol].

WILD ROOTS (morally objectionable), 5-10 drops.

WOODSGROWN ROOTS. 10-20 drops.

CULTIVATED ROOTS. 20-40 drops.

CULTIVATED RED ROOTS (Michigan and Wisconsin cured roots), 15-30 drops.

Any other "American Red Ginseng" is a blatant fake.

LEAVES. 30-60 drops, Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. All above forms to 3X a day

STATUS : W/RARE!/C

PARIETARIA (Pellitory-of-the-Wall)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol]

60-90 drops, both to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/A

PARMELIA (Alpine Lichen)

LICHEN. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 4X a day. Moisten the

herb with a little alcohol and make a Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a

day, or use the tea for topical application.

STATUS : W/LA

PARTHENIUM INTEGRIFOLIUM (Prairie Dock)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-3 ounces twice a day

ROOT. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces to 5X a day.

NOTE: The big grey roots have been used as fraudulent Echinacea angustifolia

for nearly a century...in fact the largest broker of wildcrafted US herbs in

the world is STILL perpetuating this fraud, calling it "Missouri Snakeroot"

(the common name applied normally to E. purpurea). The roots of P.

integrifolium somehow get mixed into cut/sifted and powdered Echinacea (it

all looks grey) on the world's market...from the folks who STILL adulterate

Skullcap by mixing in lots of Germander.

STATUS : W/LA

PASSIFLORA (Passion Flower)

WHOLE HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] .5 to

1.5 teapoon. Fluidextract [1:1, 45% alcohol], 30-60 drops. Standard Infusion

of recent herb, 2-6 ounces, all forms to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

PAULLINIA (Guarana)

SEED. Capsule, #00, 2-4. Fluidextract [1:1,50% alcohol,10% glycerin], 20-60

drops. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol], 1/4 to 1 teaspoon.

STATUS : W/C

*PEGANUM HARMALA (Syrian Rue)

SEEDS and ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-30 drops, to 3X a day.

LEAVES. Standard Infusion for topical use.

STATUS : W/A

PEDICULARIS (Betony, Lousewort, Elephant Head, Parrot's Beak, Indian Warrior)

HERB in FLOWER. Standard Infusion, 4-8 ounces. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2,

Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 1-2 teaspoons, all to 3X a day.

A semi-parasitic genus, don't use Pedicularis growing on Senecio or toxic

legumes.

STATUS : W/A

PETASITES (Western Coltsfoot)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day. Fresh Tincture [1:2],

30-60 drops.

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*PETROSELINUM (Parsley)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol, 30-60 drops in warm water, to 3X a day.

STATUS : C

*PHYTOLACCA (Poke)

ROOT and BERRIES. Fresh Tincture, (Root or Berries), [1:2], 2-10 drops.

Dry Root Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-15 drops.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/A

PICRAENA (Picrasma, Quassia)

WOOD. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops,

to 3X a day. Cold Infusion, 4-8 ounces, as a retained enema, once a week for

4-6 weeks for pinworms/threadworms.

STATUS : W/A

*PILOCARPUS (Jaborandi)

LEAVES. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 15-30 drops in warm water. Standard

Infusion, 2-3 ounces as a hair rinse.

STATUS : U

PIMENTA (Allspice)

SEED. The tea as a simple infusion.

STATUS : W/C

PINUS (Pine)

NEEDLES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

PITCH. Pea-sized piece hewed and swallowed as expectorant.

STATUS : W/A

PIPER ANGUSTIFOLIA (Matico)

LEAVES. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 1/2 to 1 teaspoon in cup of warm water,

to 4X a day.

STATUS : U

PIPER METHYSTICUM (Kava Kava, Ava)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root 1:2, Recent Dry Root 1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90

drops to 4X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 55% alcohol] 10-30 drops. Cold

Infusion, 2-6 oz. all to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA/C

PIPER NIGRUM (Black Pepper)

PEPPERCORNS. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-15 drops.

STATUS : C

PISCIDIA (Jamaica Dogwood, Jabin)

TREE and ROOT BARK. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-90 drops.

USE WITH CARE. Response is highly individual, so start with a low dose.

STATUS : W/LA

PLANTAGO MAJOR (Plantain)

FRESH LEAF. Fresh or frozen juice, 1-2 tablespoons to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

PLANTAGO OVATA (Psyllium Seed)

SEED. Whole seeds, 2-3 tablespoons in 12 ounces warm water or fruit juice.

HUSKS. 1-2 tablespoons in same, both to 3X a day, usually only once.

STATUS : C

PLUCHEA CAMPHORATA (P. purpurascens, Marsh Fleabane, Camphorweed)

FLOWERING TOPS. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces. Brewed with isotonic water for

use as eyewash. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

*PODOPHYLLUM. (American Mandrake)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 10-20 drops. Use carefully, and never with

overt disease or in physical depression.

STATUS : W/LA

*POLYGALA SENEGA (Senega Snakeroot, Milkwort)

ROOT and HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant 1:2, Dry Root 1:5, 65% alcohol], 10-45

drops, to 4X a day. Small frequent doses are best.

STATUS : W/LA

POLYGONATUM (Solomon's Seal)

ROOT. Strong Decoction 1-4 ounces to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

POLYGONUM AVICULARE (Knotgrass)

DRIED HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed

STATUS : W/unintentionally C

POLYGONUM BISTORTA (Bistort Root)

ROOT. Strong Decoction 1-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin]

30-90 drops, both to 3X a day. The decoction and the diluted tincture as

needed for topical use, mouthwash or gargle.

STATUS : W/A

POLYGONUM HYDROPIPER (Smartweed, Water Pepper)

HERB. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/A

*POLYMNIA UVEDALIA (Bearsfoot, Leafcup)

STEM and ROOT. Tincture [Fresh plant 1:2, Dry Root 1:5, 75% alcohol] 10-50

drops, to 3X a day. Small, frequent doses are preferable.

STATUS : W/LA

POLYPODIUM GLYCYRRHIZA (Licorice Fern)

ROOT/RHIZOME. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

POPULUS CANDICANS and BALSAMIFERA (Balsam Poplar, Balm of Gilead)

EARLY SPRING LEAF BUDS. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 75% alcohol] 15-30

drops. Infused oil [1 part buds to 10 parts oil] for topical use.

STATUS : W/A

POPULUS TREMULIODES (Aspen)

BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, up to 4X a day when condition is acute.

STATUS : W/A

POTENTILLA (Cinquefoil, Silverweed)

HERB. Any infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/A

PRIMULA (Primrose, Cowslip)

ROOT. Strong Decoction (more energetic but can gag in excess), Cold Infusion

(less active but better for more frequent expectorant use), either format

1-2 ounces to 5X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

PRINOS (Ilex verticillatus, Black Alder)

RECENT BARK and BERRIES. Strong Decoction, 3-4 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture

[1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

PROPOLIS (Hive scrapings, gathered from trees)

Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-15 drops in a little honey for internal use,

mixed with water or oil for external use.

THOSE WITH BEE ALLERGIES MAY NOT BE ABLE TO USE PROPOLIS.

STATUS : C (in the broad sense)

PRUNELLA (Self Heal, Heal All)

FRESH PLANT. Poultice as needed. Fresh Plant Tincture, [1:2], as needed.

STATUS : W/A

PRUNUS (Wild Cherry, Choke Cherry)

SUMMER or FALL BARK. Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5,

60% alcohol, 10% glycerin] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

PTELEA (Wafer Ash, Hop Tree)

BARK, SEEDS and LEAVES. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops. Strong

Decoction (Seeds and Bark), 1-3 ounces, both up to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*PTYCHOPETALUM (Liriosma, Muirapuama, Potency Wood, Raiz del Macho)

BARK, RESINOUS BARK. Tincture [1:5, 70% alcohol] 30-60 drops. Cold Infusion,

3-4 ounces, preferably in morning.

STATUS : U

PULMONARIA (Lungwort)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/A

PYGEUM AFRICANUM (Prunus africana)

BARK. 2-6 grams a day, taken in capsules or mixed with enough honey to make

into "pills" and eaten. The whole bark is hard to find in commerce, the

European pharmaceutical preparations are easy to find in American health

food stores...a far more expensive format...and GUARANTEED to "taint" it for

urologists.

STATUS : U

PYROLA (Shinleaf)

Same as Chimaphila

STATUS : W/LA

QUERCUS (Oak)

Same as Geranium

STATUS : W/A

RHAMNUS CALIFORNICA (California Buckthorn, Coffeeberry)

AGED BARK. Cold Infusion 2-6 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol], 1-2

teaspoons. Fluidextract, [1:1, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon.

STATUS : W/LA

*RHAMNUS CATHARTICA (Buckthorn)

BERRIES. Fresh Tincture [1:2], 3-20 drops. DRY crushed berries, 1-2

teaspoons steeped in a cup of water. This Rhamnus has no advantages over

the others, and is the least predictable in effect, ranging from ineffective

to painful catharsis.

STATUS : W/LA

*RHAMNUS FRANGULA (Alder Buckthorn)

See Frangula

RHAMNUS PURSHIANA (Cascara Sagrada)

AGED BARK. Same as Rhamnus californica

STATUS : W/C

RHEUM (Rhubarb, Chinese or Turkey Rhubarb)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol, 10% glycerin] 15-30 drops, to 4X a day.

Too much too frequently can induce rebound constipation.

STATUS : W/C

RHUS AROMATICA (Sweet Sumach)

BARK,ROOTBARK. Cold Infusion, 1-2 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol,10%

glycerin] 20-40 drops, both to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

RHUS GLABRA (Smooth Sumach)

LEAVES, FRUIT. Same as previous. Powdered leaves for topical use.

STATUS : W/A

ROSA (Rose Buds, Rose Petals)

FLOWERS. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces. Make w/isotonic water for eyes.

STATUS : W/C

ROSMARINUS (Rosemary)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces, to 14X a day or for a topical wash.

ESSENTIAL OIL. Capsule, 3-6 drops in a binder, with water.

STATUS : W/C

RUBIA TINCTORIUM (Madder)

ROOT. 1-2 grams to 4 X a day...traditionally taken in doses high enough for

the root's pigment to color the urine red...which can be disconcerting when

using it to help pass or prevent kidney stones. Check for blood vs pigment

with multi-stix, or use one of the many more reliable and less problematic

botanicals.

STATUS : W/C

RUBUS IDAEUS (Raspberry)

LEAVES. Infusion as needed.

STATUS : W/C

RUBUS VILLOSUS (Blackberry)

ROOT BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

RUMEX CRISPUS (Yellow Dock)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol], 30-75 drops,

to 3X a day. Capsules, #00, 1-2 to 2X a day. Use with moderation in

pregnancy. In all cases it works best in sub-laxative doses.

STATUS : W/C

RUMEX HYMENOSEPALUS (Cainagre, Red Dock)

ROOT. Strong Decoction or powder for external use, 1-2 ounces for mouth-wash

LEAVES. Fresh Tincture [1:2] for topical anti-inflammatory use.

STATUS : W/LA

RUSCUS ACULEATUS (Butcher's Broom)

ROOT/RHIZOME. Fresh Tincture [1:2] 30-60 drops, 3X a day. Pharmaceutical

preps (European) are easier to get than the crude drug...and more reliable

for chronic venous congestion.

STATUS : W/LA/C

*RUTA GRAVEOLENS (Rue, Ruda)

HERB. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 5-20 drops. A poultice with the powdered

leaves for a counterirritant poultice.

STATUS : W/C

SALIX (Willow)

BARK. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

SALVIA (Sage)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh, 1:2, Dry, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops, in

hot water (diaphoretic) or cold water (tonic).Cold Infusion or Strong

Decoction 2-4 ounces.

STATUS : W/C

SAMBUCUS (Elder)

FLOWERS, LEAVES. Flowers, Standard Infusion 2-4 ounces. Leaves, Cold

Infusion 1-2 ounces, both to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*SANGUINARIA (Bloodroot)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-15 drops. Dilute with 2X water for

tinea application.

STATUS : W/LA

SANICULA MARILANDICA (Black Sanicle, Sanicle)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day. Dry Root Tincture [1:5, 60%

alcohol], 30-90 drops to 4X a day. Externally, the decoction makes the best

wash.

STATUS : W/LA

SANTALUM (Santal, White Sandalwood)

WOOD, OIL. Wood Tincture [1:5, 80% alcohol] 25-50 drops. The oil in capsule

5-10 drops, with food, to 2X a day.

STATUS : U

SAPINDUS SAPONARIA (Soapberry)

LEAVES and STEMS. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces to 3X a day.

BERRIES.Crushed or pureed for soap.

STATUS : W/LA

SAPONARIA (Soapwort, Bouncing Bet)

WHOLE PLANT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces to 4X a day. Dry Tincture [1:5,

60% alcohol], 30-90 drops to 4X a day. Can be nauseating for a few people.

STATUS : W/C

SASSAFRAS

BARK OF ROOT. Strong Decoction, as needed.

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, as needed.

ESSENTIAL OIL. Diluted with alcohol and applied to fresh Poison Ivy contact.

STATUS : W/C

SATUREJA DOUGLASII (California Yerba Buena)

LEAVES. The tea as needed.

STATUS : W/LA

*SCOPARIUS (Cytisus scoparius, Broom Tops)

FLOWERING BRANCHES. Standard Infusion 1-2 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5,

50% alcohol] 20-40 drops to 4X a day.

USE WITH CARE, and NOT with prescription medications.

STATUS : W/A

SCROPHULARIA (Figwort)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

SCUTELLARIA (Skullcap)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Recent Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-60

drops. Standard Infusion of recent herb, 2-6 ounces, all to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*SENECIO AUREUS (Life Root, Squaw Weed)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-4 ounces. Tincture [1:5, 50% alc.], 30-90 drops.

STATUS : W/LA

*SENNA (Cassia angustifolia, Egyptian Senna, etc. )

LEAVES. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces.

PODS. 10-20, steeped for an hour in a cup of water. Take both in evening.

See also Cassia marilandica.

STATUS : W/C

SERENOA (Saw Palmetto, Sabal)

BERRIES. Tincture [Fresh Berry, 1:2, Dry Berry, 1:5, 80% alcohol] 30-90

drops. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, all forms to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

SILYBUM MARIANUM (Milk Thistle)

SEEDS. Capsules, #00, 2 at a time, to 3X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 60%

alcohol], 20-40 drops to 5X a day. Strong Tincture [1:3, 70% alcohol], 1/2

to 1 teaspoon, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/C

SIMMONDSIA (Jojoba, Goatnut)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces as needed.

OIL. Applied topically or mixed with Castor Oil.

STATUS : W/C

SINAPIS (Mustard)

SEED. PLASTER: mix 1 part powdered seed and one part flour, add enough water

to form a spreadable paste, place between two layers of gauze and apply to

desired area until skin turns pink...NOT RED (by then it will blister).

Remove plaster and wash skin.

STATUS : C

SMILACINA RACEMOSA (False Solomon's Seal)

ROOT. Steep a teaspoon of ground root in cup of hot water. Mix with some hot

water for a poultice. The fresh root can be used as a poultice.

STATUS : W/A

SMILAX (Sarsaparilla)

ROOT/RHIZOME. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

Tincture [Fresh Root,1:2, Dry Root,1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-90 drops to 3X a day

STATUS : W/A

SOLANUM CAROLINENSE (Horse Nettle, Bull Nettle)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-40 drops, for occasional use.

STATUS : W/A

*SOLANUM DULCAMARA (Bittersweet Twigs)

STEMS. Tincture [Fresh Stems 1:2, Dry Stems, 1:5, 60% alcohol] 10-20 drops.

This is best used in formulas.

USE WITH MODERATION.

STATUS : W/A

SOLIDAGO (Goldenrod)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 1-3 ounces everey four hours.

STATUS : W/A

SPHAERALCEA (Scarlet Globemallow, Yerba de la Negrita)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion as needed. Powdered herb, mixed with hot

water for poultice. The tea is a widely used hair rinse.

STATUS : W/LA

*SPIGELIA (Pink Root)

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-4 ounces morning and evening for three or four

days, followed by Senna Pods or a moderate saline purgative.

STATUS : W/LA (almost W/Rare)

STACHYS (Hedge Nettle, Woundwort)

FLOWERING HERB. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2, Dry Plant, 1:5, 50% alcohol],

1/2 to 1 teaspoon, to 4X a day. Standard Infusion, as needed, and topically

as a poultice.

STATUS : W/A

STELLARIA MEDIA (Chickweed)

HERB. Fresh plant juice or bruised whole plant as a poultice. Tincture

[Fresh Herb, 1:2, Recent Dry Herb 1:5, 50% alcohol] as needed.

STATUS : W/A

STICTA (Lobaria pulmonaria, Lungwort Moss)

LICHEN. Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol], 20-30 drops, to 4X a day. Standard or

Cold Infusion, 1-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

STILLINGIA SYLVATICA (Queen's Root)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh root,1:2, Recent Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 10-30

drops, preferably in small frequent doses.

STATUS : W/LA

SUMBUL (Ferula sumbul, Musk Root, Jatamansi)

ROOT. Tincture [1:5, 95% alcohol] 5-20 drops. Cold Infusion, 1-4 oz., to 3X

a day

STATUS : U

SWERTIA RADIATA (Green Gentian, Cebadilla, American Columbo)

ROOT. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 5-20 drops,

taken just before meals.

STATUS : W/LA

SYMPHYTUM (Comfrey)

LEAF and ROOT. Leaf, Standard Infusion 2-6 ounces. Root, Cold Infusion, 1-4

ounces, both to 3X a day,for short term use. Constant use of some cultivated

strains can irritate or damage the liver.

STATUS : C

TABEBUIA (Lapacho, Pau D'Arco, Ipe Roxo, Amapa)

TREE BARK. Cold Infusion, 2-4 ounce to 3X a day. Fluidextract [1:1, 50%

alc.] 15-30 drops to 5X a day.Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon

to 4X a day

STATUS : U

*TANACETUM (Tansy)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion 1-4 ounce.

For short term use only; some of the chemical races can be moderately toxic.

STATUS : W/C

TARAXACUM (Dandelion)

ROOT or LEAF. Root Fluidextract [1:1, 45% alcohol] 30-60 drops up to 4X a

day. Tincture [Fresh Root, 1:2] 1/2 to 1 teaspoon. Strong Decoction, 2-4

ounces, to 4X a day. Leaf as Standard Infusion, 3-6 ounces as needed.

STATUS : W/C

TECOMA STANS (Tronadora, Trumpet Flower)

WHOLE PLANT. Standard Infusion, 3-4 ounces. Capsules, #00, 6-10 a day. The

Rootbark and stem is used the same as its relative Tabebuia.

STATUS : W/LA

THALICTRUM (Meadow Rue, Ruda de la Sierra)

HERB. Standard Infusion 2-3 ounces.

STATUS : W/A

THELESPERMA (Cota, Navajo Tea)

FLOWERING HERB. A simple tea, as needed.

STATUS : W/A

*THUJA (Arbor Vitae, Flat, Red or Yellow Cedar)

HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] for topical use; 5-15 drops in water, to 4X

a day. Cold Infusion, 2-3 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/A

THYMUS (Thyme)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces, to 4X a day, or topically as needed.

ESSENTIAL OIL. Diluted w/2 parts vegetable oil as a topical antimicrobial.

STATUS : W/C

*TRIBULUS (Puncture Vine, Goat's Head)

HERB and SEEDS. 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of the powdered plant in tea, to 2X a day.

Tincture [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-40 drops, 2X a day.

STATUS : W/A

TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE (Red Clover)

FLOWERING TOP. Standard Infusion or Strong Decoction, 4-6 ounces to 3X a day

STATUS : W/C

TRILLIUM (Beth Root)

WHOLE PLANT. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 15-25 drops to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA to W/Rare

*TURNERA DIFFUSA (Damiana)

FLOWERING HERB. Fresh Plant Tincture [1:2] 20-30 drops. Standard Infusion

2-4 ounces. Dry Plant Tincture (inferior) [1:5, 60% alcohol] 30-60 drops,

all to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

TUSSILAGO (Coltsfoot)

HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-6 ounces, sipped slowly. Unlike its antispasmodic

relative Petasites, which can irritate the liver when used excessively, this

is simple and safe cough therapy.

STATUS : W/A

ULMUS FULVA /RUBRA(Slippery Elm)

BARK. Cold Infusion of bark or shredded pieces, as needed. The powdered bark

is used for making poultices.

STATUS : W/LA

UMBELLULARIA (California Bay, Pepperwood, Oregon Myrtle)

LEAF. Tincture [Fresh Leaf, 1:2, Recent Dry Leaf, 1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-20

drops to 3X a day, or inhaled from a saturated cotton ball.

STATUS : W/LA

*UNCARIA TOMENTOSA (U–a de Gato, "Cat's Claw")

ROOT and VINE. 5-20 grams a day in capsules, suspension, or the equivalent

solid or "lyophilized" extract (i.e. 1-4 grams of a 5:1 solid extract, etc.)

STATUS : W/Rare (it's already being radically overharvested in the wild) /C

(Peruvian cultivated root and herb is already on the market)

URTICA (Nettles)

WHOLE HERB. Cold or Standard infusion, as needed.

STATUS : W/C

USNEA (Hair Moss, Old Man's Beard)

HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-60 drops to 4X a day. Moisten the herb

with a little alcohol and make a Strong Decoction, 2-6 ounces, to 3X a day,

or use the tea for topical application.

STATUS : W/A

*USTILAGO (Corn Smut)

FUNGUS. Fresh Fungus Tincture [1:5] 10-40 drops to 3X a day.

USE WITH CARE.

STATUS : W/LA

VACCINIUM (Blueberry, Huckleberry, Bilberry, Whortleberry, etc.)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion of recent herb, 3-4 ounces, to 3X a day.

STATUS : W/C

VALERIANA (Valerian)

PLANT. Tincture [Fresh Whole Plant 1:2, Dry Root, 1:5, 70% alcohol], 30-90

drops, to 3X a day. Capsules (root), #00, 2-3. Constant use of the dry root

can induce mental agitation.

STATUS : W/C

*VERATRUM (Green, False or American Hellebore)

ROOT. Tincture [1:10, 95% alcohol] 3-10 drops to 3X a day.

DANGEROUS IN MODERATE, POISONOUS IN LARGER AMOUNTS.

STATUS : W/A

VERBASCUM (Mullein)

LEAVES. Standard Infusion, 2-4 ounces.

FLOWERS.Tincture [Fresh Flowers,1:2,Dry Flowers,1:5,60% alcohol] 30-90 drops

ROOT. Strong Decoction, 2-3 ounces. All forms to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

VERBENA (Blue Vervain)

FLOWERING HERB. Standard Infusion, 2-5 ounces, to 3X a day. Tincture [1:5,

60% alcohol] 30-90 drops, to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/A

VIBURNUM (V. opulus, V. prunifolium, Cramp Bark, Black Haw)

ROOTBARK and BARK. Cold Infusion or Strong Decoction, 3-4 ounces to 4X a day.

Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 30-90 drops to 4X a day.

STATUS : W/LA

*VINCA MAJOR, V. MINOR(Periwinkle)

HERB. Tincture [Fresh Herb 1:2, Dry Herb, 1:5, 50% alcohol] 20-40 drops, to

2X a day.

STATUS : W/A

VIOLA ODORATA (Violet)

HERB. Standard Infusion 2-5 ounces to 3X a day. Tincture [Fresh Plant, 1:2]

1-2 teaspoons to 2X a day.

STATUS : W/C

*VISCUM ALBUM (European Mistletoe)

HERB. Tincture [1:5, 50% alcohol] 15-30 drops. Standard infusion, 2-3 ounces

both to 3X a day. Use in moderation.

STATUS : U

*VITEX AGNUS-CASTUS (Chaste Tree Berries, Monk Peppers)

SEEDS. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 30-60 drops. Ground Berries, 1/2 to 1

tspn. in tea, both once in the morning. As it strengthens the progesterone

phase of the estrus cycle, it usually works best the two weeks before menses

STATUS : W/LA/C

XANTHIUM (Cocklebur)

PODS. 2-3 pods as infusion.

HERB. Strong Infusion 2-3 ounces, to 2X a day.

STATUS : W/A

XANTHOXYLUM (Prickly Ash)

BARK/BERRIES. Tincture [1:5, 65% alcohol] 10-30 drops, before meals.

STATUS : W/LA

YUCCA (Amole, Spanish Bayonet)

ROOT. Capsules, #00, 2-3 , morning and evenings.

STATUS : W/A

ZEA MAYS (Corn Silk)

STIGMAS. Standard Infusion, 4-6 ounces to 3X a day. Fresh Silk Tincture,

[1:2], 1/2 to 1 1/2 teaspoons in 8 ounces water.

STATUS : C

ZINGIBER (Ginger Root)

ROOT. Fresh Root Tincture [1:2] 10-20 drops in warm water. Strong Decoction

1-2 ounces, both as needed.

STATUS : C

 

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OUTLINE OF PREPARATION METHODS

COLD INFUSION

After pre-moistening a bit, wrap one part herb (dry weight) in cloth and

suspend it in 32 parts of water (by volume) at room temperature, overnight. Squeeze out the herb into the tea in the morning, and add enough water to

bring it back to 32 parts.

STANDARD INFUSION

Boil 32 parts of water, remove from heat, and steep one part (by weight) of

the herb in the water for 20-30 minutes. Strain, and pour sufficient water through the herb in the strainer to return the volume of tea to 32 parts.

STRONG DECOCTION

Combine 32 parts of water with one part of herb (by weight), bring slowly to

a boil, continue for ten minutes, cool until warm, and strain. Pour

additional water through the herb to return the volume to 32.

 

A WEAK DECOCTION is the same, but using half as much herb in the same volume

of water.

COMMENTS. Except for the weak decoction, the above teas end up with an

ounce having the constituents of a gram of herb. If the dosage recommends

4 ounces of Strong Decoction, and you only want a single batch, use 4 grams

of herb, or divide an ounce of herb into eight equal parts and use one part

for the tea. (Yes, they aren't quite equal...4 grams and an eighth of an

ounce...but these are HERBS...lighten up already).

DO NOT MAKE MORE THAN A DAY'S WORTH OF TEA AT ONE TIME.

EYEWASH and DOUCHE

Make an isotonic water by adding a slightly rounded teaspoon of salt to a

quart of clean water (1/2 teaspoon per pint, 1/4 teaspoon per cup), and make

the tea with this solution as per the recommended strength. Make a fresh

batch every 5-6 hours.

FRESH PLANT TINCTURE

One part by weight of the fresh, chopped herb is steeped for 7-10 days in two parts by volume of grain alcohol (190 proof or 95% ethanol), and pressed or squeezed out. There is no reason to blend or shake this maceration; the tincture is formed passively as a result of dehydration. Ethanol draws out

all plant constituents that contain water, leaving only cellulose and dead

tissue behind.

DRY PLANT TINCTURE: Maceration.

If the Materia Medica calls for a [1:5, 60% alcohol] tincture, it means

this: your solvent is 60% alcohol and 40% water (the water is presumed),

and one part of herb by weight has been invested in five parts of solvent

by volume. Let me run you through one. You have four ounces of dried Blue

Cohosh roots, which you then grind and sift down to a fairly consistent

coarse powder. The four ounces (1) must be mixed with 20 ounces of solvent

(5). The solvent is 60% alcohol, the rest water, so you mix 12 ounces of

ethanol and 8 ounces of water to get the final volume. Mix both together in

a closed jar, and shake the mixture up for a couple of minutes twice a day.

After 10-14 days of this, let it set another day, pour off the clear tincture

from the top, and squeeze as much out of the sediment as your press or wrists

allow. The 20 ounces of solvent (called menstruum) and 4 ounces of herb, may

yield up 13-14 ounces of tincture (by wrist) and up to 17 ounces (by press);

the rest is immutably held in the sediment (called marc). This remnant

moisture is full strength tincture, and eventually this knowledge drives one

out of four herbalists stark raving nuts. The resultant attempts to

constantly upgrade hydraulic presses rivals the feeding frenzy at computer

hardware conventions.

DRY PLANT TINCTURE: Percolation.

This is a method that needs physical demonstration and hands-on practice. That being said, this is a brief run down of the process. The same Blue

Cohosh has been freshly ground as before. Pack it into a measuring cup to

check its compressed volume...probably about six ounces. The menstruum will

need to be the 20 ounces PLUS the 6 ounce volume the ground dry herb takes up.

The proportion is the same; 60% alcohol and 40% water. 60% of 26 ounces is

15.6 fluid ounces (the alcohol), 40% is 10.4 (water). This gives you your 26

ounces of 60:40 menstruum. Place the powdered herb in a little mixing bowl

with a top, add about two-thirds as much menstruum as the herb took up in

volume. It took up six ounces in volume, so add four ounces of menstruum to

the herb, and mix it thoroughly, then cover it. This may be confusing; the

herb WEIGHS 4 ounces, but FILLS 6 ounces of volume. The reason for checking

its VOLUME will become apparent. Anyway, the menstruum-moistened herb needs

to stay covered and digesting for at least 12, preferably 24 hours.

Now you will need a percolating cone...didn't I mention that? Me and my

students find that a large Perrier bottle with its bottom removed sits

upside-down inside a large-mouthed Mason jar very nicely, and the screw cap

can be used to control the rate of drip out of the bottom (former top).

Anyway, you will need to place some moistened herb inside a coffee filter

cone, slide it into the neck of the cone, and gradually add the moistened

herb on top. It needs to be compressed and compacted onto the first batch,

until you have an evenly distributed column of herb inside the cone. Place

a filter on the level herb-column, and pour some menstruum slowly on top.

The menstruum should descent evenly down the herb column,and drip from the

bottom at about one drip per second. If it never drips out the bottom, you

packed too tight. If it drips too quickly (drools is a better word), lift

the cone out of the Mason jar, and screw the cap on until the drool becomes

a slow drip. Keep fresh menstruum covering the top of the herb until it

drips through. This can take one or two hours (or more).

When it has finished, there will be 20 ounces of tincture in the Mason

jar, and the last six ounces of menstruum (virtually inert) will stay in

the herb column, like a moist sponge. Toss it. Now you see why you need

to measure the dry herb volume; you make just enough menstruum for that batch

of tincture, and you won't have little jars with left-over excess menstruums

that are impossible to compute into another batch with different proportions.

Every Pharmacist has a copy of Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, which

describes the process in great detail, and explains why you get better

tinctures when percolating.

FLUID EXTRACT

Briefly, take 8 ounces of Tabebuia (Pau D'Arco), grind it, make up an

arbitrary amount of menstruum (let's say four times as much, or 32 ounces).

The tincture lists a 50% strength; make your fluid nextract menstruum 20%

higher in alcohol content (i.e. 70%). Mix 22.4 ounces of alcohol with 9.6

ounces of water to get a quart of 70% alcohol menstruum. Take the Tabebuia,

moisten it, digest it for TWO days, pack a larger cone with it, and drip

(very slowly) a first batch of tincture that is only 75% of the volume as

the original dry herb weighed. This means after you have dripped 6 fluid

ounces, take it away, and continue dripping everything else into a second

jar. As the rest of the menstruum finally starts to sink below the top of

the herb column, start adding water into the cone. This second drip can be

any amount you wish...a quart, two quarts, whatever. You will need to

evaporate it all in a double boiler until it is reduced to 25% in volume of

the herb weight...2 ounces in this case. Add the vile remnant of the second

percolation to the 6 ounces from the first percolation, and you now have 8

ounces of fluidextract, made from 8 ounces of Tabebuia Bark. A Fluid extract

is by definition 1:1 in strength. Now clean up.

 

 

INDEX of ALTERNATE NAMES

ALTERNATE NAME - - LISTED NAME

Acanthopanax - Eleutherococcus

Aconite - Aconitum

Actea arguta - Actea rubra

African Bird Pepper - Capsicum

Agothasma - Barosma

Agrimony - Agrimonia

Alder - Alnus

Alder, Black - Prinos

Alder, Buckthorn - Frangula

Alegria - Amaranthus

Alfalfa - Medicago

Alfilerillo - Erodium

Algerita - Mahonia

Allspice - Pimenta

Aloes Socrotine - Aloe

Alpine Lichen - Parmelia

Alum Root - Geranium

Alum,American - Heuchera

Amapa - Tabebuia

American Aloe - Agave

American Sarsaparilla - Aralia nudicaulis

Amole - Yucca

Amole Lily - Chorogalum

Anemone hepatica - Hepatica

Anemone pulsatilla - Anemone hirsutissima

Anise, Star - Illicium

Aniseed - Anisum

Antelope Horns - Asclepias asperula

Arabic Gum - Acacia senegal

Arbor Vitae - Thuja

Arbutus, trailing - Epigea

Arnica, Mexican - Heterotheca

Artichoke - Cynara

Ash - Fraxinus

Ash, Prickly - Xanthoxylum

Ash, Wafer - Ptelea

Aspen - Populus tremuliodes

Avens - Geum

Balm of Gilead - Populus candicans

Balmony - Chelone

Balsam Root - Balsamorhiza

Baneberry - Actea

Barberry - Berberis

Bayberry - Myrica

Bearberry - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Bearsfoot - Polymnia

Bedstraw - Galium

Berberis aquifolium - Mahonia

Bethroot - Trillium

Betony - Pedicularis

Bilberry - Vaccinium

Birch - Betula

Biscuit Root - Lomatium

Bishop's Weed - Ammi majus, A. visnaga

Bistort - Polygonum bistorta

Bittersweet - Solanum dulcamara

Black Cohosh - Cimicifuga

Black Haw - Viburnum

Black Root - Leptandra

Black Sampson - Echinacea angustifolia

Black Walnut - Juglans major

Blackberry - Rubus villosus

Bladderwrack - Fucus

Blazing Star - Liatris

Bleeding Heart - Dicentra formosa

Blessed Thistle - Cnicus

Bloodroot - Sanguinaria

Blue Cohosh - Caulophyllum

Blue Flag - Iris

Blueberry - Vaccinium

Boneset - Eupatorium perfoliatum

Bouncing Bet - Saponaria

Brahmi - Centella

Bricklebush - Brickellia

Broom Tops - Scoparius

Broom, Butcher's - Ruscus Aculeatus

Broomrape - Orobanche

Bryony - Bryonia

Buchu - Barosma

Buckbean - Menyanthes

Buckeye - Aesculus glabra

Buckeye, California - Aesculus californica

Buckthorn - Frangula

Buckthorn - Rhamnus cathartica

Buckthorn, Cal. - Rhamnus californica

Buckwheat Bush - Eriogonum

Bugleweed - Lycopus

Bunchberry - Cornus

Burdock - Arctium

Burning Bush - Euonymus

Bursage - Ambrosia

Butcher's Broom - Ruscus Aculeatus

Butter-and-eggs - Linaria

Butterfly Milkwees - Asclepias tuberosa

Butternut - Juglans cineria

Button Bush - Cephalanthus

Cachana - Liatris

Cactus - Cereus, Opuntia

Calamus - Acorus Calamus

Calif. Buckeye - Aesculus californica

Calif. Poppy - Eschscholtzia

Calif. Slippery Elm - Fremontia

Calif. Snakeroot - Aristolochia californica

Camphor Weed - Heterotheca, Pluchea

Can. Balsam - Abies

Can. Fleabane - Erigeron

Can. Hemp - Apocynum

Can. Snakeroot - Asarum

Canaigre - Rumex hymenosepalus

Canela - Cinnamonum

Canutillo - Ephedra viridis

Caraway - Carum

Cardinal Flower - Lobelia cardinalis

Cardo Santo - Argemone

Carrot - Daucus

Cascara Sagrada - Rhamnus purshiana

Cassia angustifolia - Senna

Cat's Paw - Antennaria

Cataria - Nepeta

Catclaw Acacia - Acacia greggii

Catnip - Nepeta

Cayenne - Capsicum

Cebadilla - Swertia

Celandine - Chelidonium

Celery - Apium

Cenizo - Leucophyllum

Centaury - Centaurium

Century Plant - Agave

Chamomile - Matricaria

Chamomile, Roman - Anthemis

Chaparral - Larrea

Chaparro Amargosa - Castela

Chaste Tree Berries - Vitex Agnus-Castus

Cheeseplant - Malva

Cherry, Wild - Prunus

Chestnut - Castanea

Chestnut, Horse - Aesculus hippocastinum

Chickweed - Stellaria Media

Chicory - Cichorium

Chilcuan - Heliopsis

Chimaja - Cymopterus

Cilantro - Coriandrum

Cinquefoil - Potentilla

Cistus - Helianthemum, Cistus

Cleavers - Galium

Clover, Red - Trifolium pratens

Clover, Sweet - Melilotus

Clover, Yellow - Melilotus

Cloves - Caryophyllus

Cochlearia - Armoracia

Cocklebur - Xanthium

Coffee - Caffea

Cohosh, Black - Cimicifuga

Cohosh, Blue - Caulophyllum

Coltsfoot - Tussilago

Coltsfoot, Western - Petasites

Columbo, American - Swertia

Comfrey - Symphytum

Common Ivy - Hedera helix

Coneflower - Echinacea, all

Conopholis - Orobanche

Conyza - Erigeron

Copaiba - Copaifera

Coral Root - Coralorrhiza

Corn Silk - Zea Mays

Corn Smut - Ustilago

Corydalis canadensis - Dicentra

Cota - Thelesperma

Cotton Root - Gossypium

Couchgrass - Agropyron

Cow Parsnip - Heracleum

Cowslip - Primula

Cramp Bark - Viburnum

Cranesbill - Geranium

Crawley - Coralorrhiza

Creosote Bush - Larrea

Cuauchichic - Garrya

Cudweed - Gnaphalium

Culver's Root - Leptandra

Cypress - Cupressus

Cytisus - Scoparius

Damiana - Turnera

Dandelion - Taraxacum

Desert Anemone - Anemone Tuberosa

Desert Lavender - Hyptis

Desert Tea - Ephedra viridis

Desert Willow - Chilopsis

Devil's Claw - Harpagophytum

Devil's Club - Oplopanax

Devil's Dung - Asafetida

Devil's Walkingstick - Aralia hispida

Dock, Prairie - Parthenium integrifolium

Dodder - Cuscuta

Dogbane - Apocynum

Doggrass - Agropyron

Dogwood - Cornus

Dogwood, Jamaican - Piscidia

Dong Quai - Angelica sinensis

Dryopteris - Aspidium

Dugaldia - Helenium

Dusty Miller - Cineraria

Elder - Sambucus

Elder, Dwarf - Aralia hispida

Elecampane - Inula

Elephant Head - Pedicularis

Elephant Tree - Bursera

Epazote - Chenopodium

Eryngo - Eryngium

Escoba de la Vibora - Gutierrezia

Everlasting - Gnaphalium

Eyebright - Euphrasia

False Aloe - Agave

False Solomons Seal - Smilacina

Fennel - Foeniculum

Fern, Maidenhair - Adiantum

Fern, Male - Aspidium

Ferula asafetida - Asafetida

Ferula sumbul - Sumbul

Feverfew - Chrysanthemum parthenium

Figwort - Scrophularia

Fireweed - Epilobium, Erechtites

Flag, Blue - Iris

Flag, Sweet - Acorus Calamus

Flax - Linum

Fleabane - Erigeron

Fo-Tzu - Aconitum carmichaeli

Fringetree - Chionanthus

Frostwort - Helianthemum

Fu-tze - Aconitum carmichaeli

Fumitory - Fumaria

Galangal - Alpinia

Garlic - Allium sativum

Gay Feather - Liatris

Gentian - Gentiana

Gentian, Green - Swertia

Giant Willow Herb - Epilobium

Ginger - Zingiber

Ginger, Wild - Asarum

Ginseng - Panax

Ginseng,Siberian - Eleutherococcus

Goat's Head - Tribulus

Gold Thread - Coptis

Golden Seal - Hydrastis

Golden Smoke - Corydalis aureus

Goldenrod - Solidago

Gotu Kola - Centella

Gravel Root - Eupatorium purpureum

Ground Ivy - Glechoma

Guarana - Paullinia

Guayacan - Guaiacum angustifolium

Gum Arabic - Acacia senegal

Gumweed - Grindelia

Habin - Piscidia

Hair Moss - Usnea

Hamula - Brickellia

Hawthorn - Crataegus

Heal All - Prunella

Hedge Nettle - Stachys

Hedge Nettle - Gratiola

Hediondilla - Larrea

Helianthemum - Cistus, Helianthemum

Hellebore, Am. - Veratrum

Hellebore, False - Veratrum

Hellebore, Green - Veratrum

Helleborine - Epipactis

Hemlock Spruce - Abies

Hemp - Cannabis

Henbane - Hyocyamus

Hercules Club - Aralia spinosa

Holacantha - Castela

Hollyhock - Althea

Holy Thistle - Cnicus

Hop Tree - Ptelea

Hops - Humulus

Horehound - Marrubium

Horehound, Water - Lycopus

Horse Balm - Collinsonia

Horse Chestnut - Aesculus hippocastinum

Horse Nettle - Solanum carolinense

Horsemint - Monarda

Horseradish - Armoracia

Horsetail - Equisetum

Hound's Tongue - Cynoglossum

Huang Chi - Astragalus

Huckleberry - Vaccinium

Hydrocotyle - Centella

Hyssop - Hyssopus

Iceland Moss - Cetraria

Ilex verticillatus - Prinos

Incienso - Brickellia

Indian Root - Aristolochia watsonii

Indian Warrior - Pedicularis

Indigo, Wild - Baptisia

Inmortal - Asclepias asperula

Ipe Roxo - Tabebuia

Ivy, Common - Hedera helix

Ivy, Ground - Glechoma

Jabin - Piscidia

Jaborandi - Pilocarpus

Jack-in-the-Pulpit - Arisaema

Jamaica Dogwood - Piscidia

Jasmine, Yellow - Gelsemium

Jatamansi - Sumbul

Jersey Tea - Ceanothus

Jewel Weed - Impatiens

Jimson Weed - Datura

Jojoba - Simmondsia

Juniper Juniperus

Kava Kava - Piper methysticum

Khella - Ammi Visnaga

Kinnikinnick - Arctostaphylos uva-ursi

Knotgrass - Polygonum aviculare

Kola - Cola

Labrador Tea - Ledum

Ladies Mantle - Alchemilla

Lady Slipper - Cypripedium

Lapacho - Tabebuia

Lappa - Arctium

Larkspur - Delphinium

Laurel, California - Umbellularia

Lavender - Lavandula

Leafcup - Polymnia

Lechuguilla - Agave

Lemon - Limon

Lemon Balm - Melissa

Leptotania - Lomatium

Lespedeza - Lespedeza Capitata

Lettuce, Wild - Lactuca

Lichen, Alpine - Parmelia

Licorice - Glycyrrhiza

Licorice Fern - Polypodium

Liferoot - Senecio

Lignum Vitae - Guaiacum

Lily of the Valley - Convallaria

Lily, Tiger - Lilium tigrinum

Liriosma - Ptychopetalum

Liverwort - Hepatica

Lizard Tail - Anemopsis

Lobaria - Sticta

Logwood - Hematoxylon

Loose-Strife - Lythrum

Lotebush - Condalia

Lousewort - Pedicularis

Lungwort Moss - Sticta

Lungwort - Pulmonaria

Ma Huang - Ephedra vulgaris

Macrotys - Cimicifuga

Madder - Rubia tinctorium

Madrone - Arbutus

Maguey - Agave

Maidenhair Fern - Adiantum

Maidenhair Tree - Ginkgo

Mandrake, Amer. - Podophyllum

Manzanilla - Matricaria

Manzanita - Arctostaphylos

Maravilla - Mirabilis

Marigold, Europ. - Calendula

Marijuana - Cannabis

Marsh Fleabane - Pluchea

Marshmallow - Althea

Mate - Ilex Paraguaensis

Matico - Piper angustifolia

Maturin - Cacalia

Maturique - Cacalia

May Apple - Podophyllum

Meadowsweet - Filipendula

Mescal Buttons - Lophophora

Mesquite - Prosopis

Mikweed, Common - Asclepias cornuta

Milfoil - Achillea

Milk Thistle - Silybum

Milkweed, Desert - Asclepias subulata

Milkweed, Spider - Asclepias asperula

Milkweed, Swamp - Asclepias incarnata

Milkweed,Butterfly - Asclepias tuberosa

Mimbre - Chilopsis

Mint, Water - Mentha Aquatica

Mistletoe - Viscum

Monks Pepper - Vitex agnus-castus

Monkshood - Aconitum

Mormon Tea - Ephedra viridis

Moss, Iceland - Cetraria

Motherwort - Leonurus

Mountain Everlasting - Antennaria

Mountain Laurel - Kalmia

Mountain Mahogany - Cercocarpus

Mugwort - Artemisia vulgaris

Muirapuama - Ptychopetalum

Mullein - Verbascum

Musk Root - Sumbul

Mustard - Sinapis

Myroxylum pereirae - Balsam of Peru

Myroxylum toluiferum - Balsam of Tolu

Myrrh - Commiphora

Navajo Tea - Thelesperma

Nerve Root - Cypripedium

Nettles - Urtica

New Jersey Tea - Ceanothus

Night-Blooming Cereus - Cereus

Nutmeg - Myristica

Oak - Quercus

Oats - Avena

Ocotillo - Fouqueria

Odontotrichum - Cacalia

Ohio Buckeye - Aesculus glabra

Old Man's Beard - Usnea

Olive Olea Europaea

Orange Sneezeweed - Helenium

Oregon Myrtle - Umbellularia

Orris Root - Iris Florentina

Oxe-Eye Daisy - Leucanthemum

Parrot's Beak - Pedicularis

Parsley - Petroselinum

Pasque Flower - Anemone hirsutissima

Passion Flower - Passiflora

Pau D'Arco - Tabebuia

Pausinystalia - Corynanthe

Peach Tree - Amygdalus

Pearly Everlasting - Anaphalis

Pellitory-Of-The-Wall - Parietaria

Peniocereus - Cereus

Pennyroyal - Hedeoma

Pennyroyal, European - Mentha pulegium

Peony - Paeonia

Pepper, Black - Piper nigrum

Pepper, Cayenne - Capsicum

Peppermint - Mentha piperita

Periwinkle - Vinca major

Peruvian Balsam - Balsam of Peru

Peruvian Bark - Cinchona

Peyote - Lophophora

Pheasant's Eye - Adonis vernalis

Picrasma - Picraena

Pigweed - Amaranthus

Pincture Vine - Tribulus

Pine - Pinus

Pineapple Weed - Matricaria Matricarioides

Pinkroot - Spigelia

Piper cubeba - Cubeba

Pipsissewa - Chimaphila

Plantain - Plantago

Pleurisy Root - Asclepias tuberosa

Plumajillo - Achillea

Poke Root, Berries - Phytolacca

Poleo - Mentha arvensis

Poleo Chino - Hedeoma

Pomegranate - Granatum

Pond Lily, White - Nymphaea

Ponil - Cercocarpus

Poplar Buds - Populus candicans

Porlieri - Guaiacum angustifolium

Prairie Dock - Parthenium integrifolium

Prickly Ash - Xanthoxylum

Prickly Pear - Opuntia

Prickly Poppy - Argemone

Primrose - Primula

Primrose, Evening - Oenothera

Privet - Ligustrum

Prodigiosa - Brickellia

Prunus africanum - Pygeum africanum

Psyllium - Plantago ovata

Pterocarpus - Kino

Pulsatilla - Anemone hirsutissima

Punica - Granatum

Purple Sage - Leucophyllum

Pussy Toes - Antennaria

Pyrethrum parthenium - Chrysanthemum parthenium

Quassia - Picraena

Quebracho - Aspidosperma

Queen of the Meadow - Eupatorium purp.

Queen's Root - Stillingia

Quinine Bark - Cinchona

Quinine Bush - Garrya

Ragweed - Ambrosia

Ragwort - Senecio

Raiz del Indio - Aristolochia watsonii

Raiz del Oro Heliopsis

Raspberry - Rubus idaeus

Rattlesnake Master - Eryngium

Red Osier - Cornus

Red Root - Ceanothus

Rhamnus frangula - Frangula

Rhatany - Krameria

Rheumatism Root - Jeffersonia

Rhubarb - Rheum

Rock Rose - Cistus, Helianthemum

Roman Chamomile - Anthemis

Rue - Ruta graveolens

Rue, Goats - Galega

Rue, Meadow - Thalictrum

Rue, Syrian - Peganum harmala

Sabal - Serenoa

Safflowers - Carthamus

Saffron - Crocus

Saffron, American - Carthamus

Sage - Salvia

Sagebrush - Artemisia tridentata

Sandalwood - Santalum

Sangre de Drago - Jatropha cinerea

Sanicle - Sanicula

Sarsaparilla - Smilax

Saw Palmetto - Serenoa

Scarlet Globemallow - Sphaeralcea

Scarlet Pimpernel - Anagallis

Scouring Rush - Equisetum

Selenicereus - Cereus

Self Heal - Prunella

Senecio cineraria - Cineraria

Senega Snakeroot - Polygala

Senna - Cassia, Senna

Serpentaria - Aristolochia serpentaria

Shavegrass - Equisetum

Shepherd's Purse - Capsella

Shinleaf - Pyrola

Silk Tassel - Garrya

Skullcap - Scutellaria

Skunk Cabbage - Dracontium

Skunk Cabbage, Western - Lysichiton

Smartweed - Polygonum hydropiper

Snakeroot, Missouri - Echinacea purpurea

Snakeroot,Button - Eryngium, Liatris

Snakeroot, Kansas - Echinacea angustifolia

Snakeroot,Senega - Polygala

Snakeroot, Virginia - Aristolichia serpentaria

Soapberry - Sapindus

Soapwort - Saponaria

Solomon's Seal - Polygonatum

Sourwood - Oxydendron

Spearmint - Mentha viridis

Spikenard - Aralia racemosa

Squaw Vine - Mitchella

Squaw Weed - Senecio

St. John's Wort - Hypericum

Stavesacre - Delphinium

Stinkasant - Asafetida

Stone Root - Collinsonia

Storksbill - Erodium

Stramonium - Datura

Strawberry - Fragaria

Stream Orchid - Epipactis

Sumach, Fragrant - Rhus aromatica

Sumach, Smooth - Rhus glabra

Sumach, Sweet - Rhus aromatica

Sundew - Drosera

Sweet Cicely - Osmorhiza

Sweet Clover - Melilotus

Sweet Flag - Acorus Calamus

Sweet Root - Osmorhiza

Sweetgum - Liquidamber

Symplocarpus - Dracontium

Syrian Rue - Peganum harmala

Tag Alder - Alnus

Taheebo - Tabebuia

Tang Kwei - Angelica sinensis

Tansy - Tanacetum

Te de Coral - Bidens

Teasel - Dipsacus

Tecomblate - Condalia

Texas Ranger - Leucophyllum

Thlaspi - Capsella

Tickseed - Bidens

Toadflax - Linaria

Tobacco - Nicotiana

Tobacco, Indian - Lobelia inflata

Toluifera - Balsam of Peru

Torote - Bursera

Trailing Arbutus - Epigea

Tree of Heaven - Ailanthus

Triticum - Agropyrons

Trumpet Creeper - Campsis

Trumpet Flower - Tecoma

Tsuga - Abies

Turkey Corn - Dicentra

Turkey Mullein - Eremocarpus

Turkey Rhubarb - Rheum

Turmeric - Curcuma

Turtlehead - Chelone

Twin Leaf - Jeffersonia

Una De Gato - Uncaria

Unicorn Root - Aletris, Chamaelirium

Uva Ursi - Arctostaphylos

Vanilla Leaf - Achlys

Veronicastrum - Leptandra

Vervain - Verbena

Virgin's Bower - Clematis

Virginia Snakeroot - Aristolochia serpentaria

Wafer Ash - Ptelea

Wahoo - Euonymus

Water Eryngo - Eryngium

Water Horehound - Lycopus

Water Mint - Mentha Aquatica

Water Pepper - Polygonum hydropiper

Western Coltsfoot - Petasites

White Pond Lily - Nymphaea

Wild Ginger - Asarum

Wild Indigo - Baptisia

Wild Lettuce - Lactuca

Wild Yam - Dioscorea

Wintergreen - Gaultheria

Witch Hazel - Hamamelis

Wolf Berry - Lycium

Wormseed - Chenopodium

Wormwood - Artemisia absinthium

Woundwort - Stachys

Yarrow - Achillea

Yellow Dock - Rumex crispus

Yellow Jasmine - Gelsemium

Yellow Parilla - Menispermum

Yellow Pond Lily - Nuphar

Yerba Mansa - Anemopsis

Yerba Mate - Ilex Paraguaensis

Yerba Reuma - Frankenia

Yerba Santa - Eriodictyon

Yerba de la Negrita - Sphaeralcea

Yerba del Lobo - Helenium

Yerba del Sapo - Ambrosia

Yohimbe - Corynanthe

 


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Copyright 1995 by Michael Moore.